FACTBOX: What China and the US have done on climate
COPENHAGEN (Reuters) - The United States and China, the world's top emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2), traded shots in the opening days of a two-week international summit that aims to agree a new global pact to fight global warming.
China said the United States should do more to reduce its CO2 emissions and the Obama administration said Beijing and other major developing countries needed to come forward with firm proposals.
Here is a rundown of some climate and energy moves by both countries:
* China and the United States have both set emissions goals for 2020, compared against 2005 levels -- rather than the 1990 baseline used in most United Nations reports.
The United States has offered cuts "in the range of" 17 percent, and China a 40 to 45 percent reduction in "carbon intensity" -- the amount emitted per yuan of national income. The World Resources Institute think-tank suggested the goals represent a comparable effort.
"The United States would see slightly more than a 40 percent improvement in carbon intensity, similar to China's ambitions," the think tank said in a report.
* China's goal is official policy. The U.S. goal was announced by the White House and is in line with the Waxman-Markey climate change bill which has been passed by the House of Representatives but not yet signed into law because it has not been matched by the Senate.
If Congress fails to complete legislation, the administration has indicated it will go ahead with regulations to control climate change through the Environmental Protection Agency. Some states, such as California, have their own goals for reducing emissions.
* China in 2008 got 9 percent of its energy from renewable sources, and has promised to boost this to 15 percent by 2020.
It appears to be ahead of schedule with parts of its renewable energy expansion -- solar power alone may reach 5 or even 10 times the 2020 target if current expansion continues.
* The United States in 2007 got around 7 percent of its energy from renewable sources. The Waxman-Markey bill also sets a 15 percent target for 2020.
State governors could lower the 15 percent target to 12 percent if they determine the national goals are unattainable for their states. If they do, they have to increase energy efficiency targets (see below).
* Obama has also set a short-term target to double renewable energy production in three years.
* A U.S. economic stimulus measure enacted in February included $30 billion for investments in renewable energy technology and improved energy transmission.
The Waxman-Markey bill mandates a 5 percent increase in energy efficiency by 2020, to accompany the renewable energy goal. States can raise this to 8 percent if they choose to cut their renewables target (see above).
* China in 2006 pledged to improve energy efficiency 20 percent by 2010, and looks broadly on track to achieve that goal. It is also expected to extend the efficiency drive to 2020 as part of the climate change programme.
* China's fuel economy standards for its rapidly growing passenger vehicle fleet are more stringent than those in Australia, Canada and the United States. Average fuel economy for new vehicles was estimated at 36.7 mpg (miles per gallon) in 2008.
* Obama has set new auto efficiency standards that will result in an average standard of 35.5 mpg by 2016 for the U.S. passenger vehicle fleet.
* China woke up to its energy and environment problems at the start of this decade. After years chasing economic growth at any cost, officials began to worry about rising reliance on overseas oil and gas and unrest due to pollution.
In 2006 it launched ambitious efficiency goals.
* The United States signed the Kyoto Protocol but never ratified it. President George W. Bush, who in 2006 said there was still debate as to whether global warming was natural or manmade, argued that it would damage the economy too much.
Obama's administration has taken a much stronger stance on climate change, pushing for greater fuel efficiency and promising to regulate CO2 emissions.
Sources: Reuters, White House Press release (2006)
(Reporting by Emma Graham-Harrison and Richard Cowan; editing by Robin Pomeroy)
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