FACTBOX-Pledges of climate aid, vital to U.N. deal
Aug 26 (Reuters) - Pledges by rich countries to provide developing nations with "fast start" funds to fight climate change are closing in on a $30 billion goal for 2010-12, but some fail the demand for new money. [ID:nLDE67O1KE]
With curbs on many national budgets, developed nations are struggling to raise cash that is a key to progress towards a new U.N. deal to combat global warming at a meeting of environment ministers in Cancun, Mexico, Nov. 29-Dec. 10.
Following is an overview of the main promises, and examples of projects in developing nations, from Tonga to Ethiopia:
More than 120 nations agreed to the U.N.'s Copenhagen Accord in December for curbing global warming. On finance, developed nations agreed to give "new and additional resources ... approaching $30 billion for the period 2010-2012."
There are no rules for deciding who contributes what, no common reporting and no definition of what qualifies as "new and additional". The Copenhagen Accord also speaks of raising aid to at least $100 billion a year from 2020.
UNITED STATES - $3.2 BILLION. The U.S. contribution to fast-start aid was $1.3 billion for 2010 and President Barack Obama requested $1.9 billion for 2011. The United States is a leading donor in a $3.5 billion plan to protect forests from 2010-12 also funded by Australia, France, Japan, Norway and Britain. For 2010, the State Department says that $448 million goes to helping countries adapt to climate change, $595 million to clean energy and $261 million to "sustainable landscapes."
JAPAN - $15 BILLION. Japan said in Copenhagen it would offer $15 billion in the three years to end-2012, including $11 billion in public money. The total amount includes around 1 trillion yen ($11.87 billion) left over from the "Cool Earth Partnership" initiative under the previous Liberal Democratic Party-led government running from 2008-2012. As of end-April, Japan had spent $5.3 billion for projects in countries including Indonesia, the Philippines, Bangladesh, India, Egypt, Kenya and Nepal. Japan has said it would spend the money "while monitoring developments in global negotiations". A foreign ministry official said it is unlikely to back off from the pledge and will continue to provide funding for developing countries which have backed the Copenhagen Accord and are working for a deal.
CANADA - $377 MILLION. Canada has committed C$400 million ($377 million) as fast-start funds for the 2010-11 fiscal year, Environment Canada said. The funds are additional to those previously considered for climate change programmes before Copenhagen. Future contributions have not been decided.
AUSTRALIA - $504 MILLION. In June, promised 559 million Australian dollars ($504.1 million) to the 2010-12 funds.
EUROPEAN UNION - $9.59 BILLION - In a mid-year review, the European Commission said "the EU is delivering on its fast-start pledge" for 2010 of 2.4 billion euros. For 2010-12, it said 7.55 billion euros ($9.59 billion) had been confirmed.
At that review, member states gave the following examples of projects in developing nations:
GERMANY - 4.2 million euros from 2009-10, to be increased by 10 million in 2010, to help Tonga and Vanuatu improve land use. Also, 2.25 million euros from 2010-13 to Ghana to help micro-insurance projects covering risks of droughts and extreme weather.
FRANCE - Loans to support national climate change action plans -- 185 million euros to Mexico, $800 million for Indonesia, 25 million euros for Vietnam, 125 million euros for Mauritius.
BRITAIN - 50 million sterling ($77.10 million) for Indonesia from 2011-16 to help curb greenhouse gases, partly by managing forests. Of the total, 19 million sterling is fast-start funds.
SPAIN - 45 million euros to the Adaptation Fund, which it says is the first significant contribution by a donor and 36 percent of Spain's pledge for fast-start funds for 2010.
THE NETHERLANDS - 310 million euros for fast-start funds for 2010-12. It says the funds are "new and additional" to overseas aid totalling 0.8 percent of gross national product. Of the cash, it plans to spend 90 million on renewable energy in Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
SWEDEN - Says it is helping countries including Mali. It says it will provide about 800 million euros from 2010-12 for climate aid projects.
FINLAND - Finland's contribution to EU fast-start finance is 110 million euros for 2010-12, an increase over 2009 spending. Projects include forest conservation in Nepal.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION - Says it will provide 50 million euros of fast-start financing per year from 2010-12. In 2010, 25 million euros will be allocated to capacity building related to climate change mitigation, forestry and technology cooperation, and 25 million to actions focusing on adaptation in Ethiopia, Nepal and the Pacific region.
NORWAY - $1 BILLION. Says fast-start funds so far comprise support for slowing deforestation, totalling $1 billion for 2010-12. Other amounts may follow for other activities. Forest projects include in Brazil, Guyana, Indonesia and Tanzania.
SWITZERLAND - $136 MILLION. The government is seeking 140 million Swiss francs ($135.9 million) in fast-start funds. That is about 0.45 percent of $30 billion -- Switzerland's share of greenhouse gas emissions by developed nations is 0.3 percent, but is wealthier than most so can afford more.
(Compiled by Alister Doyle in Oslo; Additional reporting by Richard Cowan in Washington, Chisa Fujioka in Tokyo, Pete Harrison in Brussels, Louise Egan in Ottawa, Laura MacInnis in Geneva; Editing by Sonya Hepinstall) ($1=84.27 Yen) ($1=.7901 Euro) ($1=1.030 Swiss Franc) ($1=.6485 Sterling)
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