CHRONOLOGY-Federal Reserve's transparency steps
By Ann Saphir Dec 14 (Reuters) - The Federal Reserve has deployed a range of unorthodox tools to spur recovery from the worst recession in decades and in doing so has also made commitments about how long it plans to use them. In December, it took the novel step of indicating it will keep benchmark U.S. interest rates low not just for a specific period, as it has since August 2011, but until unemployment falls at least to 6.5 percent, unless inflation threatens to rise above 2.5 percent. In future statements, Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke said, the U.S. central bank will drop the calendar-date guidance - currently mid-2015 - altogether and rely solely on the thresholds to guide expectations for when the Fed will finally raise rates from near zero, where they have been since December 2008. The Fed has not offered explicit guidance on its open-ended bond-buying program, which it says it expects to continue until the labor market outlook improves "substantially." The following are the main strides the Fed, once a bastion of secrecy, has taken toward more transparency since 1994: February 1994 - The policy-setting Federal Open Market Committee begins to release statements announcing moves in the overnight federal funds rate, its main policy tool. February 1995 - The FOMC decides to issue "lightly edited" verbatim transcripts of deliberations with a five-year lag. August 1997 - The Fed publicly acknowledges policy is formulated in terms of a target for the federal funds rate. The FOMC begins to put a number on the intended federal funds rate in its policy-implementing directive to the New York Fed. December 1998 - The FOMC adopts a policy of immediately communicating a major change in its views on the likely direction of monetary policy. The first announced bias shift was in May 1999. The FOMC has issued a statement after every meeting since then, whether or not it has changed rates or shifted its bias. December 1999 - The FOMC adopts a new procedure on issuing assessments of balance of economic risks, instead of policy bias. The statement issued after the February 2000 FOMC meeting was the first with the new balance of risks language. March 2002 - The FOMC adopts policy of immediately announcing whether there were any dissenting votes. Previously, the roll-call vote was disclosed only when the meeting's minutes were released. July 2004 - The Fed begins to provide a forecast for core inflation, in addition to overall inflation, in its semiannual monetary policy reports to Congress. Fed officials generally focus more heavily on core inflation measures. December 2004 - The FOMC decides to accelerate the release of its meetings' minutes by making them public three weeks after each gathering as opposed to after the subsequent meeting, a lag of about six weeks. February 2005 - The Fed provides two-year forecasts from policymakers in its February monetary policy report to Congress. Previously, the February report contained only forecasts for the current year. November 2007 - The Fed says it will increase the frequency of its forecasts to four a year from two, and extend the horizon of projections to three years from two. February 2009 - The FOMC adds longer-run projections for GDP, unemployment and inflation to its three-year quarterly forecasts. The move is seen as effectively establishing an informal inflation target. December 2010 - As required by the Dodd-Frank financial reform law, the Fed releases the names of firms that borrowed from its special emergency programs during the financial crisis. The law did not require the release of details of past lending from its regular "discount window," although future lending will be disclosed with a two-year lag. March 2011 - The Fed releases the names of banks that borrowed from its discount window during the financial crisis after having run out of legal appeals to block publication. April 2011 - Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke holds the Fed's first post-meeting news conference. January 2012 - The Fed begins publishing policymakers' projections of when the benchmark fed funds rate, which has been near zero since December 2008, will rise for the first time since then. It also makes public a chart showing at what level policymakers expect interest rates to be at the end of the next several calendar years and in the longer run. The Fed also releases a statement of longer-run goals and policy strategy saying that inflation at the rate of 2 percent is most consistent with its price stability mandate. August 2012 - The Fed begins publishing quarterly, unaudited financial results of its operations, starting with the first two quarters of the year. The central bank previously had released financial statements yearly. The move comes amid criticism from Republicans, who want the Fed audited annually in a move that could expose monetary policymaking to congressional oversight. December 2012 - The Fed adopts thresholds for the first time, saying it expects to hold rates near zero until unemployment falls to at least 6.5 percent, unless the inflation outlook for the next one to two years rises above 2.5 percent.
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