China OKs sweeping tax reforms to tackle inequality

BEIJING Tue Feb 5, 2013 10:18am EST

A family arrives at Beijing West Railway Station February 5, 2013. REUTERS/Jason Lee

A family arrives at Beijing West Railway Station February 5, 2013.

Credit: Reuters/Jason Lee

Related Topics

BEIJING (Reuters) - China unveiled sweeping tax reforms on Tuesday to make wealthy state-owned firms, property speculators and the rich pay more to narrow a yawning gap between an urban elite and hundreds of millions of rural poor.

The plans approved by the State Council - China's cabinet - also included commitments to push forward market-oriented interest rate reforms to give savers a better return and more security.

Chief among the reforms is a requirement to raise the percentage of profits contributed by state-owned firms to the government by about 5 percentage points by 2015.

Together with measures to raise wages and improve households' return on assets, the reforms signal an attempt to shift economic growth towards increased consumption and away from the current reliance on investment spending.

"The State Council is not just talking about the gap between rich and poor, they're talking about the whole economy and how income is distributed among various actors - the households, the corporations and the government," said Andrew Batson, research director of GK Dragonomics, an economic consultancy in Beijing.

"It's about changing the entire flow of income around the national economy."

One key change will make interest rates more flexible. Interest rates on savings deposits have lagged inflation for many years, depressing returns for households and pushing those who can afford it to more speculative investments.

"Push forward market-oriented interest rate reform, appropriately expand the floating range for interest rates on deposits and loans and protect depositors' interests," the announcement said.

It also called for "building a long-term mechanism" to boost rural incomes, and reiterated previous pledges to raise incomes, particularly for the poor.

Citizens would see more opportunities to earn money from assets, including increasing fund products, and expanding income from rents, dividends and bonuses.

And rural migrants will get more opportunity to transfer their official residency to cities, where wages and social services are better.


Trimming the power enjoyed by state-owned firms was top of the list of structural reforms submitted by think-tanks ahead of the November change of leadership in the ruling Communist Party.

State-owned firms generally transfer only a small portion of their profits to the state, but have come under increasing pressure from reformists who believe they benefit from too much support which the private sector does not share.

These profits are seen as a potential source of funding as China builds pension, health insurance and other systems to create a social safety net for its citizens.

Raising the dividend payout from state-owned enterprises will also go some way to curbing criticism from China's trading partners that Beijing unfairly supports its state-backed firms by giving them numerous tax breaks and access to cheap capital.

"For state-owned companies in some industries with overly high income, we will strictly implement the two-tier controls on firms' total salary and wage level to gradually reduce the salary gap between different industries," said the circular.

The announcement also took on powerful state-backed monopolies, calling for "enhanced supervision" to avoid improper access to public resources at low or no cost. Oil companies and others have long resisted attempts to increase the amount they pay the state for natural resources.


Decades of economic reform have made some very rich and brought prosperity to an urban middle class. But many, particularly in the countryside, have been left behind.

Efforts to build a progressive individual income tax system have been stymied by undeclared sources of wealth, while pilot plans to introduce a property tax have been wildly unpopular.

The National Bureau of Statistics this month released an updated estimate that the country's Gini coefficient, a measure of income disparity, had reached 0.474 - well above the 0.40 level considered a trigger for social discontent.

"The urban-rural gap and the difference in citizens' income is relatively large, income is irregularly distributed, there are obvious problems of grey income and illegal income, and some of the masses live in difficult conditions," the circular said.

Tax reforms included expanding a pilot property tax to more cities, adjusting a property transaction tax, levying a number of luxury taxes and "studying" an inheritance tax to be introduced "at an appropriate time".

(Reporting By Xiaoyi Shao and Lucy Hornby; Editing by Nick Edwards and Stephen Nisbet)

We welcome comments that advance the story through relevant opinion, anecdotes, links and data. If you see a comment that you believe is irrelevant or inappropriate, you can flag it to our editors by using the report abuse links. Views expressed in the comments do not represent those of Reuters. For more information on our comment policy, see
Comments (11)
americanguy wrote:
So Communist China is more democratic than America?
China has the guts to make the wealthy pay their fair share of taxes but America does not?
Now that’s funny.

Feb 05, 2013 11:23am EST  --  Report as abuse
PPlainTTruth wrote:
@americanguy: Taking money from the rich to give to the poor is actually a fundamental tenet of Communism. The new followers of McCarthyism would never tell you that.

The problem with Communism was not about too little distribution, it was always about too much!

When everybody gets the same, there was no incentive for anybody to work hard, to innovate. Everybody made the same. That’s the reason why Communist economies failed. That’s why Marxism failed, not because Marx himself ever championed repressive attacks against human rights( now, what those seem to always happen in Communist regime is the million dollar question that political scientists never yet managed to explain). In fact, Communism, on paper, is a Utopian theory; the problem is that it did not work as an economic theory. And when it didn’t work, instead of realizing that Marx’s Communism is a failed economic paradigm, they unleashed their wrath at the rich, hence the horrible Cultural Revolution. It’s as if the Occupy Movement got too powerful and became mobs that inflict horrible human rights violation against innocent entrepreneurs who had never committed any ethical violation but happened to be rich! That’s the other side of the coin.

Feb 05, 2013 12:49pm EST  --  Report as abuse
blah77 wrote:
China has the make these changes eventually or social unrest will become inevitable. Glad they got around to it sooner rather than later but this is only a step in the right direction. There is still more to be done.

The economic boom has definitely created a massive income gap between the urban and rural dwellers in China. Just the moderately affluent urbanites have attained substantial discretionary income, enough to make purchases such as upscale European goods, electronic items, jewelry or luxury vehicles on a regular basis, often at a 40% or even 80% markup when compared to U.S. prices. The purchases are not funded with loans either as cash is still king there. Something had to be give eventually.

Feb 05, 2013 12:54pm EST  --  Report as abuse
This discussion is now closed. We welcome comments on our articles for a limited period after their publication.

Track China's Leaders