* Russia says will not lend directly to Belarus
* Minsk sought $3 bln in loans from Russia, regional fund
* May only get $1 bln this year
* IMF says rouble rates need unifying
(Adds IMF comment)
By Darya Korsunskaya and Andrei Makhovsky
MOSCOW/MINSK, May 11 Russia refused to provide a
bailout loan to ally Belarus on Wednesday, telling it to
privatise state assets and seek help from the IMF, which in turn
urged it to speed through reforms to overcome a currency crisis.
The Russian snub came in spite of Belarus' decision on
Wednesday to ease restrictions on the foreign currency exchange
rate, which Moscow had asked for, and raise the central bank's
refinancing rate by 100 basis points.
The isolated former Soviet nation had hoped to get a total
of $3 billion from Moscow and a regional fund to which Russia is
the main contributor after losing a quarter of its reserves this
year trying to support the weakening Belarussian rouble BYR=.
But Russian Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin said all Belarus
could get this year was $1 billion from the Eurasian Economic
Community Anti-Crisis Fund.
"We're considering a $1 billion loan (from the fund) this
year," he told reporters in Moscow.
"We think that these funds -- if they are approved -- will
not be enough (to resolve the crisis in Belarus) and thus we
think it would make sense (for Belarus) to turn to the IMF."
The currency crisis, which many analysts attribute to
pre-election overspending by President Alexander Lukashenko last
year, has led to crowds at street exchange points as
Belarussians queue, sometimes through the night, to snap up the
few available dollars.
Many imported goods, such as medicines, are now in short
supply and people are buying up and hoarding staples, such as
sugar and vegetable oil.
Formal devaluation of the Belarussian rouble could now be on
the cards which would erode people's savings and undermine
Lukashenko's election pledges to raise living standards, and
could threaten the economic basis of his rule.
But Kudrin's advice to turn to the IMF for help may be hard
to follow for Lukashenko.
He is under sanctions by Western governments because of his
re-election in December which international monitors questioned.
Analysts say the United States and the European Union could
block any IMF aid even if Belarus applied for it.
The Fund on Wednesday welcomed Minsk's decision to
liberalise the cash exchange rate but urged it to press ahead
with "the unification of exchange rates on all segments of the
foreign exchange market." [ID:nLDE74A1VU]
Natalya Kolyadina, the Fund representative in Minsk, said
Belarus had not applied for a loan so far.
Kudrin said the terms of the deal with Moscow would likely
be agreed by May 19 when Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin
is due to visit Belarus.
Belarus, which has retained a Soviet-style economic system
dominated by state-owned companies, could also raise $2 billion
through privatisation, he said.
"De facto, Russia cut its support by two thirds relative to
the initial plan," BNP Paribas economist Julia Tsepliaeva said
in a note.
NO QUICK FIX FOR EXCHANGE RATE
Kudrin's statement made it clear that Belarus would not get
a quick cash injection that would allow its central bank to
steady the exchange rate. The proposed Anti-Crisis Fund loan
package would total $3 billion, but be spread over three years.
"I would say that the Russian position is justified because
if it lends $1-2 billion to Belarus it would be a waste of
money. Unless such a loan is accompanied by very strong policy
conditions it would be wasted on (supporting) the currency,"
said Alexander Morozov, chief economist at HSBC in Moscow.
"This tougher position is better for Belarus because it
forces them to move forward."
Earlier on Wednesday, Belarus said it has allowed retail
exchange points to use market exchange rates rather than the
official rate, a move that could once again allow ordinary
Belarussians to buy foreign currency legally.
Exchange points in Minsk, however, remained short of foreign
currency as, according to a market source, the central bank
instructed them to adjust the exchange rate gradually. Most
exchange points quoted the rouble at about 4,000 per dollar.
The official exchange rate, which has stayed at around 3,000
roubles per dollar, now applies only to exporters' mandatory
sales of foreign currency -- which the central bank then resells
at similar rates key importers.
Other companies use a free floating rate which is hovering
at around 5,000 roubles per dollar.
The central bank also said it would raise its refinancing
rate to 14 percent from 13 percent from May 18 as inflation
accelerated to 18.1 percent year-on-year in April.
BELARUS IN COLD WAR WITH WEST
Lukashenko, who has been in power since 1994, won a fourth
term in office last December in a vote that Western observers
criticised as fraudulent.
Five opposition politicians who challenged Lukashenko in the
now on trial over a protest On Dec 19 in Minsk when police
rounded up hundreds of opposition supporters. The crackdown led
to the Western sanctions which include a travel ban on
Lukashenko and his associates. [ID:nLDE74A0UJ]
"It would be a huge fillip for markets if they got a Fund
programme," said Gabriel Sterne, at Exotix brokerage in London.
"But Lukashenko has clearly turned against the West again."
This leaves Moscow in a position of power even despite its
refusal to fully bail out Minsk. "It's fair to say Russia has
never been in a stronger position to get serious concessions
from Lukashenko," said Sterne.
(Additional reporting by Douglas Busvine in Moscow and Sujata
Rao in London; Writing by Olzhas Auyezov and Richard Balmforth;
Editing by John Stonestreet)