(John Kemp is a Reuters market analyst. The views expressed are
By John Kemp
LONDON Oct 30 California's lawmakers have
ensured the state will remain a major oil and gas producer by
approving new legislation allowing hydraulic fracturing and acid
treatments to rejuvenate its ageing wells in exchange for strict
controls and tougher enforcement.
Senate Bill No 4 (SB 4), which Governor Jerry Brown signed
into law on Sept. 20, directs the state Department of
Conservation and other agencies to adopt new rules and
regulations covering well construction, fracturing and other
well stimulation treatments by the start of 2015.
The chemicals used will have to be disclosed to regulators
and published, subject to special treatment for trade secrets.
Penalties for violating certain regulations on oil and gas
operations were increased from $25,000 per violation to between
$10,000 and $25,000 per violation per day.
In another concession to environmental and community groups
worried about the safety of fracturing and acidizing, the law
directs the state's Natural Resources Agency, which focuses on
environmental protection rather than oil and gas production, to
conduct an independent scientific study into the hazards and
The bill was approved on a largely party-line vote in the
state Assembly and Senate, with Democrats providing most of the
votes in favour and nearly all Republicans voting against.
Governor Brown, who has supported fracking, said in a
signing statement the bill, "needs some clarifying amendments",
which he hopes will be made in 2014. But the political deal is
clear: the law endorses fracking and acidizing in exchange for
what the governor called "strong environmental protections and
Brown also directed the Department of Conservation and other
agencies to develop an efficient permitting programme that
"groups permits together based on factors such as known geologic
conditions and environmental impacts" to expedite approvals,
rather than requiring the risks of each well to be assessed
SB 4 brings widespread fracking in California a step closer.
By providing a clear legislative framework, it should reduce the
risk of endless court challenges brought by opponents to agency
regulations and permit approvals.
The Conservation Department's Division of Oil, Gas and
Geothermal Resources (DOGGR) has been drafting and consulting on
fracking regulations for the past year.
Rather than starting again, much of that earlier work can be
used as the basis for the regulations required by SB 4. The
DOGGR claims it is "well prepared to meet" the deadline of
having them in place by Jan. 1, 2015. So the first pilots with
fracturing could occur in just over a year's time.
In the past century, California has produced more oil than
any other U.S. state except Texas. It was still the
third-largest producer in 2012 at 536,000 barrels per day (bpd),
surpassed only by Texas (1.992 million bpd) and North Dakota
But output has halved since the 1980s. California's aging
fields long ago lost much of their natural pressure.
Waterflooding to drive some of the remaining oil towards the
wells and attempts to enhance oil recovery by injecting fields
with steam and carbon dioxide are yielding diminishing returns.
California is one of only a handful of states where oil
output is still in decline, since the fracturing revolution has
raised production in the rest of the country (Chart 1).
Nowhere is the decline more evident than in Kern County at
the southern end of the Central Valley, which accounts for
around three-quarters of the state's oil wells and a similar
share of output.
In the groves around Bakersfield, Kern is a major producer
of almonds, citrus fruits and pistachios as well as one of the
heartlands of California's oil industry.
Oil production and agriculture have long co-existed in Kern.
Many farmers receive royalties from wells on their land.
Chart 1: link.reuters.com/qur83v
Chart 2: link.reuters.com/far34v
But output is dwindling. Production has fallen by nearly 40
percent from almost 230 million barrels in 1990 to just 141
million in 2012, according to the state Oil and Gas Supervisor.
Average output per well has declined from more than 20 barrels
per day in 1980 to just nine last year (Chart 2).
New wells are still being drilled near the almond groves:
the total number of active and shut-in wells has risen to over
58,000 from just 48,000 in 1990. But new bores cannot offset the
declining output from old wells.
Well output is poor even by the low standards common in the
United States. Virtually all wells in the county would be
classified as marginally economic "strippers".
NEW SHALE FRONTIER
Kern needs new investment and techniques to arrest and
reverse the decline in its aging fields. Only fracking and
perhaps acidizing can stop further production losses.
Unlike the Bakken in North Dakota, where fracking is used to
develop unconventional continuous-type oil resources in shale
formations, Kern County's existing fields are conventional, with
oil pooled in discrete accumulations.
Fracturing could still improve the permeability of the
reservoirs, however, and enable more of the remaining oil to
flow to the wells.
An even bigger prize is the vast Monterey Shale formation,
which stretches from Kern northwards up the Central Valley.
California's Monterey and Santos shale formations could contain
15 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil, according to
an estimate published by the U.S. Energy Information
Administration (EIA) in 2011.
Unlocking oil from these shales would require techniques
similar to those employed in North Dakota and Texas.
There is no evidence that fracturing is any more risky than
other forms of oil production.
Fracturing was used 1 million times on oil and gas wells
between 1947, when the first well was hydraulically fractured in
Kansas, and 2002, according to the U.S. National Petroleum
Council, an industry-expert body set up to advise the federal
Most of the threats associated with hydraulic fracturing are
shared by conventional oil and gas production techniques, which
have been employed in the state for decades.
The main problems with fracking have been political. While
other major oil-producing states, such as Texas, North Dakota
and Oklahoma, have embraced fracking as a way to bring new life
to aging oil areas, fear of the environmental risks and
political fallout has caused California to hesitate.
But the passage of Senate Bill 4 suggests the logjam is
about to break. If so, the state could start to see fracking
from 2015/16 onwards, opening up a new frontier in shale
(editing by Jane Baird)