By Sui-Lee Wee and Ben Blanchard
BEIJING Nov 8 China's outgoing President Hu
Jintao said the nation faced risk and opportunity in equal
measure as he formally opened a congress of the ruling Communist
Party that will usher in a once-in-a-decade leadership change.
More than 2,000 hand-picked delegates gathered at Beijing's
cavernous Great Hall of the People for the start of the
week-long session, being held against a backdrop of growing
social unrest, public anger at corruption and a yawning gap
between rich and poor.
"At present, as the global, national and our party's
conditions continue to undergo profound changes, we are faced
with unprecedented opportunities for development as well as
risks and challenges unknown before," Hu said in the customary
speech signalling the start of the meeting.
During the congress, Hu will give up his role as party chief
to anointed successor Vice President Xi Jinping. Xi then takes
over state duties at the annual meeting of parliament in March.
The government has tightened security in the run-up to the
congress, even banning the flying of pigeons in the capital, and
has either locked up or expelled dozens of dissidents it fears
could spoil the party.
Security was especially tight on Thursday around the Great
Hall and Tiananmen Square next door, the scene of pro-democracy
protests in 1989 that were crushed by the military.
Police dragged away a screaming protester as the Chinese
national flag was raised at dawn.
The party, which came to power in 1949 after a long and
bloody civil war, has in recent years tied its legitimacy to
economic growth and lifting hundreds of millions out of poverty.
But China experts say that unless the new leadership pushes
through stalled reforms, the nation risks economic malaise,
deepening unrest, and perhaps even a crisis that could shake the
party's grip on power.
Advocates of reform are pressing Xi to cut back the
privileges of state-owned firms, make it easier for rural
migrants to settle permanently in cities, fix a fiscal system
that encourages local governments to live off land
expropriations and, above all, tether the powers of a state that
they say risks suffocating growth and fanning discontent.
The congress may also see cautious efforts to answer calls
for more political reform, although nobody seriously expects a
move towards full democracy.
Party spokesman Cai Mingzhao said on Wednesday there would
be greater efforts at promoting "inner-party democracy" - in
other words, encouraging greater debate within the party - but
that one-party rule was inviolate.
"The leading position of the Communist Party in China is a
decision made by history and by the people," he said. "Political
system reform must suit China's national reality. We have to
unswervingly stick to the right path blazed by the party."
And that path includes control over what people can see and
hear in the news and on the internet.
"My internet has been cut off, I can't receive telephone
calls and three people follow me when I leave the house to walk
my dog," Xinna, the wife of one of China's longest-serving
political prisoners, Mongol rights activist Hada, told Reuters.
"All I want from this congress is my husband to be released
and for our lives to get back to normal," she said from her home
in the frigid northern Chinese city of Hohhot.
A Tibetan rights group reported that three teenaged Tibetan
monks in the southwestern province of Sichuan set themselves on
fire on Wednesday in protest against Chinese rule, bringing to
almost 70 the number of self-immolations by Tibetans in 18
China has branded the self-immolators "terrorists" and
criminals and has blamed exiled Tibetans and the exiled Tibetan
spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, for inciting them.