By Mark Miller
CHICAGO Aug 6 Chalk it up as an unintended
consequence of Obamacare: a growing number of U.S. employers are
aiming to cut their healthcare costs by shifting retirees into
the law's new public insurance exchanges, which launch this
Detroit, which filed for bankruptcy, hopes to push retirees
who are too young for Medicare onto the new public insurance
exchanges as a way of shedding healthcare liabilities. Chicago
has proposed a plan to migrate most of its 30,000 under-65
retirees to the state exchanges by 2017. And, in the private
sector, more than 60 percent of employers are reassessing their
retiree health coverage as a result of the Affordable Care Act
(ACA), according to a study to be released this week by Aon
Hewitt, the benefits consulting firm.
The ACA's exchanges offer employers a way to cap or reduce
their exposure to rising retiree health costs, most often
without actually reducing the benefits provided.
"Companies are looking to save money, but not materially
change the benefits retirees receive," says John Grosso, who
leads a task force on retiree health care at Aon Hewitt. "These
changes aren't takeaways - employers are using the exchanges to
deliver a promised benefit, but deliver it with less cost."
Only 7 percent of private sector employers offered health
benefits to early retirees in 2010, and 6 percent offered it to
Medicare-eligible retirees, according to the federal Agency for
Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). It's much more common
among large companies: at businesses with 1,000 or more workers,
32 percent offered health coverage to Medicare-eligible retirees
in 2011, and 38 percent offered it to early retirees.
Retiree health coverage is much more common in the public
sector, but it has been declining sharply in recent years. While
strapped states and cities often are bound by law to provide
pension benefits, retiree health benefits are not - although
they may be protected by collective bargaining agreements. The
percentage of state government units offering retiree health
insurance to Medicare-eligible workers was 63 percent in 2010,
down from 89 percent in 2003, according to AHRQ.
Most retirees over 65 are enrolled in Medicare Part A
(hospitalization) and Part B (outpatient services). Employers
sometimes provide supplemental coverage for prescription drugs
and to plug some of Medicare's gaps, such as deductibles and
coinsurance for long hospital stays and outpatient services.
Some employers are replacing in-house retiree drug coverage
with group Part D plans. But the Aon Hewitt survey found that 40
percent of employers that already have decided to make changes
in retiree coverage will move Medicare-eligible retirees to the
individual Part D marketplace, often backed by a direct tax-free
subsidy to offset cost.
The ACA has made the Part D marketplace more attractive than
many employer plans, by gradually closing the gap in drug
coverage - known as the donut hole - and incorporating a 50
percent discount on brand-name drugs. "The improvements are a
big deal, and they've made the individual market more attractive
than ever before for employers," Grosso says.
Meanwhile, for pre-Medicare retirees, the ACA's exchanges
offer tax credits to offset premiums costs for families with
incomes between 100 percent and 400 percent of the federally
defined poverty guideline. That works out to an annual income
between $11,490 and $45,960 for an individual, and between
$23,550 and $94,3200 for a family of four.
Shopping the Medicare markets can be challenging, and
navigating the public exchanges also will be complex. But
employers usually aren't leaving retirees to fend for
themselves, Grosso says. Instead, they are adding call centers
manned by licensed advisers who can assist retirees with
evaluating and enrolling in plans being offered where they live.
"Employers aren't comfortable just putting retirees out
there figure out how to evaluate 30 different plans in their zip
code," Grosso says.
For Medicare-eligible retirees who lose employer coverage,
the first decision is whether to stick with traditional
fee-for-service Medicare or enroll in an all-in-one Medicare
Advantage plan, says Paula Muschler, manager of the Allsup
Medicare Advisor, a Medicare plan selection service.
Most Medicare Advantage plans are managed care health
maintenance organizations (HMOS) or preferred provider
organizations (PPOs). Enrollees pay their regular monthly Part B
premium ($104.90 this year), but often no additional premium for
drug coverage, which averages $30 per month this year. They also
don't pay for Medigap supplemental plans.
"Medicare Advantage plans can be a great option, because
they're very similar to group plans that retirees had while they
were working," Muschler says.
If you don't opt for Advantage, you'll need to sign up for a
standalone prescription drug plan, and you'll want to consider a
Medigap plan, too.
Typically, it's best to buy a Medigap policy during your
open enrollment period, which runs for six months and starts on
the first day of the month in which you are age 65 and enrolled
in Medicare Part B. Insurance companies are required under the
law to sell you a policy during open enrollment. They can't
exclude pre-existing conditions, or charge a higher premium due
to any past health problems.
Muschler notes that a loss of employer-provided supplemental
coverage triggers a 63-day open enrollment for Medigap, no
matter your age, from the time you lost employer-provided