By Robert Campbell
NEW YORK, April 13 Dated Brent, the
Frankenstein's monster of a benchmark that underlies a huge
proportion of the global oil market, needs yet another
restructuring as North Sea production problems have again
winnowed its basis down to a relative trickle.
Output of the four crude streams used to determine the Dated
Brent price will fall to only 875,000 barrels per day in May as
natural decline rates and the shutdown of Total's
Elgin/Franklin field combine to leave the benchmark on a
perilously thin basis.
That's a record low output for the four streams and worse
than in the spring and summer of 2011 when the modest underlying
basis of the Brent contract played havoc with oil prices.
This May a mere 45 cargoes of oil will be eligible to set
the price of Dated Brent. The actual number is likely to be far
lower as equity crude holders can -- as they often do -- opt to
keep cargoes for their own use rather than trading them to
The very limited number of available cargoes means the Dated
Brent price could be easily "squeezed" higher by a trader
amassing a (legal) commanding position in eligible cargoes.
Probably the only major obstacle to a squeeze right now is
the feeble state of oil demand with refinery maintenance and a
relatively well supplied spot market keeping premiums low.
But with output of the four streams -- Brent Blend, Forties
Blend, Oseberg and Ekofisk -- now struggling to stay above 1
million bpd in good months, the time has come to broaden the
Platts, the McGraw-Hill unit that assesses the Dated
Brent price, has previously expressed a willingness to add
additional crude streams to the benchmark to compensate for
But until an overhaul is implemented, the narrowing basis of
the Dated Brent price leaves it open to the charge of opacity
and a growing risk of "squeeze" trades.
The longer the Dated Brent price goes unreformed the more
awkward will be the questions from the outside world,
particularly as politicians and regulators are starting to take
an interest in the minutiae of oil price reporting mechanisms.
MAJOR CHANGE NEEDED
Things were not supposed to happen so fast. Platts widened
the assessment window on Dated Brent out to 25 days in January
in an effort to add liquidity to the physical Brent market.
That tinkering was supposed to buy enough time to allow
Platts to consult further with the industry about more
fundamental changes to the benchmark to be implemented later
Instead, if April and May are any guide, the situation this
summer may be as challenging as the summer of 2011, when
unplanned outages in North Sea output as well as routine
summertime maintenance slashed liquidity in the physical market.
Platts has already suggested it may consider the pricing of
additional North Sea grades when it assesses Dated Brent.
Statfjord has been mooted as well as Troll and DUC.
But the problem here is that, in the current methodology,
which uses the lowest priced eligible crude grade to determine
the daily Dated Brent assessment, differences between the grades
means that the lowest quality stream, Forties, almost always
sets the Dated Brent price.
The other grades provide a cap in the event of Forties
spiraling higher, but do little to provide competition on the
Adding more grades to this mixture will not eliminate this
problem of market fragmentation, but will really only disguise
the very narrow basis of the purported global oil benchmark.
The time for a more profound overhaul of Dated Brent has
been long at hand. A major change that deepens market liquidity
and provides a more credible and transparent basis for pricing
Accomplishing that may be difficult. Big players in the
Dated Brent market have resisted change in the past when it has
gone against their interests.
The current market structure mainly suits entrenched
interests who benefit from opacity and the very high barriers to
entry into the market.
More tinkering is nothing more than pretending the problem
of fragmenting liquidity at the heart of the global oil trade
But given the huge vested interests in maintaining the
current contract, more tinkering may well be all we get.