FRANKFURT, July 3 The European Central Bank will
start giving banks the opportunity to borrow four-year loans at
ultra-cheap rates from September to encourage them to lend more
freely to the euro zone's real economy.
Here is how the programme, dubbed the targeted long-term
refinancing operations, (TLTROs) will work.
Who can borrow?
All euro zone banks with access to central bank funding can
borrow from the ECB. Euro zone banks who are not individually
eligible for ECB borrowing can borrow through groups led by an
ECB-eligible bank. The ECB is allowing the group approach
because it wants to support bank lending across the sector.
How much can banks borrow?
Up to 1 trillion euros could be borrowed ($1.36 trillion) in
total, ECB President Mario Draghi said on Thursday, citing the
ECB's own projections.
In the first stage, banks can borrow up to about 400 billion
euros in operations on Sept. 18 and Dec. 11.
The amount a bank can borrow from the two operations
combined is capped at 7 percent of its loans to companies and
households in the euro zone, excluding mortgages, as of April
Banks can borrow more in quarterly instalments between March
2015 to June 2016. How much a bank will be allowed to borrow in
these instalments depends on how much they lend to the real
Banks that increased lending to the real economy in the year
to April 30 will be able to borrow three times the amount of
their additional lending.
Banks that shrank their lending in the run up to the April
2014 cut-off date are projected to continue doing so at a
similar rate over the next year to April 2015 before
stabilising. Such projections serve as the benchmark.
These banks, too, can then borrow up to three times any
increase in their lending over their respective benchmark. There
are no repayments over the first two years.
When do banks have to pay the money back?
The ECB will review banks' lending two years after the
programme begins. Banks that fail to meet their individual net
lending projections set by the ECB, will have to pay back their
borrowings in full in September 2016.
All TLTROs loans will mature in September 2018.
Will banks use the funds to buy government debt again?
There has been concern that banks could take the cheap money
and invest it in assets that pay higher returns, such as
government bonds, something that could earn them a decent return
even it that means they will have to pay the funds back after
just two years.
The incentives to do so are lower now than they were in
2011/2012 when the ECB handed out three-year crisis loans and
banks embraced the so-called 'carry trade'.
Banks can now borrow at a cheaper rate in the normal ECB
funding operations - 0.15 percent - than the possibly 0.25
percent for the TLTROs, which takes the main refinancing rate at
the time the bank takes the TLTRO loan plus 10 basis points.
The thinking is that banks can lock in current low rates
until 2018, when interest rates are likely to be higher than
now. So having to pay them back halfway is seen as a penalty.
And finally, government bond yields across the euro zone
have fallen significantly since 2012 and offer less of an
incentive to buy into them to generate higher returns.
($1 = 0.7331 Euros)
(Reporting by Eva Taylor; Editing by Laura Noonan and Hugh