* Visco warns inflation expectations could fall suddenly
* Says low euro zone bond yields may not last long
* Says Italy recovery prospects uncertain, must increase
(Adds data from Bank of Italy's report, details)
By Gavin Jones
ROME, May 30 Excessively low inflation in the
euro zone should be dealt with as firmly as high inflation, ECB
Governing Council member Ignazio Visco said on Friday, adding
that a strong euro had helped push inflation too low.
He reiterated that the European Central Bank was ready to
use unconventional policies if new staff forecasts confirm
inflation is set to remain well below the ECB's target of just
under 2 percent for the next two years. The euro zone central
bank's policymakers next meet on June 5.
The ECB's main refinancing rate stands at a record low of
0.25 percent and the bank is expected to cut it and other
interest rates further at its June meeting and adopt other
measures aimed at boosting lending to smaller firms.
Euro zone inflation stood at just 0.7 percent in April and
is expected to remain at the same level in May.
Visco, who is also Bank of Italy governor, said the speed
with which inflation expectations can change meant decisive
action was needed to head off any risk of a deflationary spiral.
"The exchange rate is not in itself a monetary policy
target, but at this stage the euro's appreciation has compressed
consumer price inflation," Visco also told the Italian central
bank's annual assembly.
Italian EU-harmonised consumer prices were up just 0.4
percent annually, falling short of forecasts for a 0.6 percent
annual rise, data on Friday showed.
In its annual report published on Friday, the central bank
said foreign investors bought a net 37 billion euros of Italian
bonds in the first quarter of this year, compared with a net 13
billion euros in all of 2013.
This showed a clear reversal of the trend started in the
last months of 2011, when foreign investors shed Italian debt
massively as the country was engulfed in the sovereign debt
Visco warned, however, that historically low yields on euro
zone government bonds may not last indefinitely and that global
yields could rebound in response to a less expansionary monetary
policy in the United States.
"Volatility on the financial markets in the advanced
economies has subsided to well below the historic norm, reaching
levels that in the past sometimes preceded rapid changes in the
orientation of investors," he added.
While euro zone policymakers had responded to the region's
debt crisis by strengthening fiscal rules, multilateral
surveillance and establishing common funds to help countries in
difficulty, much remained to be done, Visco said.
"Banking union, now being implemented, should be followed
by the creation of a true common budget," he said, adding that
the euro zone suffers from being "a currency without a state".
Visco said Italy's exit from six years of recession and
stagnation was proving "laborious" and stressed the need to
increase investment, which fell in 2013 to 17 percent of gross
domestic product, the lowest level since World War Two.
Industrial output has fallen by 25 percent and with
thousands of firms going out of business the country's
manufacturing capacity has shrunk by 15 percent, he said.
Italy's economy shrank 0.1 percent in the first quarter of
2014 after GDP edged up 0.1 percent late last year, its first
sign of growth for two years.
Visco said the Bank of Italy would in the next few weeks
adopt measures to improve banks' liquidity so they can increase
lending to credit-starved small and medium sized companies.
Next month the Bank of Italy will unveil measures to enable
domestic banks to use their current account facilities as
collateral to secure ECB funding, banking sources told Reuters
some weeks ago, disclosing one the tools the central bank would
use to improve financing condition for small firms.
Current account facilities, which allow small businesses to
borrow up to an agreed amount while they are waiting for
customers to pay them for their goods, were estimated to provide
up to 180 billion euros in funds to Italian firms last year.
Visco also called for banks to continue disposing of bad
loans on their books and said there may be a market for these
loans from national and international investors.
(additional reporting by Stefano Bernabei, Editing by Catherine