Here is a look at Hosni Mubarak from the start of his presidency to when he was sentenced to life imprisonment on Saturday for his role in killing protesters involved in a uprising that toppled him from power last year:
October 6, 1981 - Vice-President Mubarak is thrust into office when Islamist radicals gun down President Anwar Sadat at a military parade. He is approved as president in a referendum in November.
June 26, 1995 - Gunmen attack Mubarak's car as he arrives at an African summit in Ethiopia's capital Addis Ababa. He escapes unhurt and returns to Egypt.
November 17, 1997 - Islamist militant group al-Gama'a al-Islamiya (Islamic Group) kills 58 tourists and four Egyptians at an ancient temple near Luxor. It is the most dramatic act in a 1990s rebellion by Islamists seeking to establish an Islamic state. The revolt is eventually crushed by state security.
March 2005 - Street protests by the Kefaya (Enough) Movement draw hundreds across Egypt to oppose a fifth six-year term for Mubarak or any attempt to install his son Gamal in his place.
May 11, 2005 - Parliament votes to change the constitution to allow contested presidential elections, dismissing opposition complaints that strict rules would prevent genuine competition.
September 27, 2005 - Mubarak is sworn in for a fifth consecutive term after winning the first multi-candidate presidential vote on September 7. Rights groups say the vote was marred by abuses. His closest rival, Ayman Nour, comes a distant second and is later jailed on charges he says are politically motivated.
December 8, 2005 - The Muslim Brotherhood wins 20 percent of the seats in parliament, its best showing. Rights groups say the vote was vitiated by irregularities to ensure Mubarak's ruling party retains a big majority.
April 2008 - Riots erupt in a number of cities over wages, rising prices and shortages of subsidised bread.
March 27, 2010 - Mubarak reassumes presidential powers after three weeks recovering from gallbladder surgery in Germany.
November 29, 2010 - A parliamentary election virtually eliminates opposition to Mubarak's ruling party in the assembly before a 2011 presidential vote. The Brotherhood and several other opposition groups boycott the parliamentary election.
January 25, 2011 - Anti-government protests begin across Egypt, driven by discontent over poverty, repression and corruption.
January 28 - Mubarak orders troops and tanks into cities overnight to quell the demonstrations.
January 31 - Egypt swears in a new government. New Vice-President Omar Suleiman says Mubarak has asked him to start dialogue with all political forces.
February 10 - Mubarak says national dialogue under way, transfers powers to vice-president but refuses to leave office immediately. Protesters in Cairo's Tahrir Square are enraged.
February 11 - Mubarak steps down and a military council takes control.
April 12 - Mubarak is hospitalised after being questioned by prosecutors. The next day, Egypt orders Mubarak detained for questioning on accusations he abused his power, embezzled funds and had protesters killed.
August 3 - Mubarak, wheeled into a courtroom cage on a bed to face trial, denies the charges against him. His two sons, Gamal and Alaa, also deny the charges. In subsequent sessions, Mubarak always appears on a hospital stretcher.
June 2, 2012 - Mubarak is sentenced to life in prison for his role in the killing of protesters and is flown from the Cairo court to Tora prison on the outskirts of the capital, where he is admitted to a hospital facility.
(Reporting by David Cutler, London Editorial Reference Unit)