* EU says diplomatic shift has Washington's "full
* Step is biggest since EU lifted sanctions in 2008
* EU is Cuba's top foreign investor, No. 2 trade partner
(Add comment from EU representative in Havana)
By Robin Emmott
BRUSSELS, Feb 10 The European Union agreed on
Monday to launch negotiations with Cuba to increase trade,
investment and dialogue on human rights in its most significant
diplomatic shift since Brussels lifted sanctions on the
communist-ruled country in 2008.
After more than a year of discussions, EU foreign ministers
decided to seek better ties with Havana to support the Caribbean
island nation's market-oriented reforms and to position European
companies for any transition to a more open economy.
"These negotiations will help consolidate our engagement
with Cuba," the EU's foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton said
after the decision. "I hope Cuba will take up this offer."
EU negotiators aim to agree the so-called Political Dialogue
and Cooperation Agreement by the end of 2015 and say Cuba has
signalled a willingness to sign.
While EU investment in Cuba and progress toward multiparty
democracy are not expected to change dramatically in the near
future, the pursuit of the accord is symbolic, highlighting the
bloc's warmer ties with Cuba in contrast to the United States,
which has maintained an economic embargo on Cuba since 1962.
EU officials repeatedly said human rights would be a core
issue in the negotiations, and the European Union's ambassador
to Havana said Cuban authorities had indicated that "everything
could be on the table," including human rights.
"That was the message at the very beginning of the process,
but now we have to set agendas and there, of course, the more
difficult issues will come out," EU Ambassador Herman
Portocarero told reporters in Havana.
Cuba and the European Union share "common ground" on Cuba's
social and collective human rights, but differ on individual
rights, Portocarero said. Cuba's one-party system inhibits
dissent and free speech.
Although U.S.-Cuba relations have taken a more pragmatic
tone recently, with officials from both sides pointing to
improvements, Washington has barely budged since easing Cuban
travel restrictions in 2011.
The United States previously exerted pressure on Europe to
isolate the Cuban government. But one senior EU official who met
U.S. officials last week to brief them on Europe's plans said
the EU's overtures were met with Washington's "full
The EU official also denied any suggestion that Brussels was
trying to "buy" democratic reforms in Cuba, saying EU aid to
Havana would remain at current levels.
Cuba has received about 80 million euros ($109 million) in
development aid from the EU since 2008, according to EU data.
The EU is Cuba's biggest foreign investor and second biggest
trading partner after Venezuela. One third of tourists visiting
the island every year come from the 28-member EU.
CHANGE FROM WITHIN
Even without big surges in trade - Cuba exports little - the
symbolism is huge for the EU, whose ties with Havana had been
strained since Brussels imposed diplomatic sanctions in 2003 in
response to the arrest of 75 dissidents.
Although the EU lifted those sanctions in 2008, the
normalization of relations has been tortuous because of
resistance from Poland and the Czech Republic due to their own
Warsaw and Prague now back a deal with Cuba, while the
Netherlands sent its foreign minister to Havana in January - the
first such trip by the Dutch since the 1959 Cuban Revolution.
The EU's Education Commissioner Androulla Vassiliou will
also visit Cuba this week, a sign that high-level visits by EU
officials may be resuming.
The last time Havana and the EU came close to an economic
cooperation agreement was in 1996, but the Europeans called off
talks in the wake of the shooting down of two small U.S. planes
by Cuba off its shores, killing four Cuban exiles aboard.
As a result, the EU adopted its "common position" on Cuba in
December 1996, placing human rights and democracy conditions on
improved economic relations.
Havana rejects the common position as interference in its
internal affairs, but Spain says this policy will remain until
the cooperation accord is agreed.
"The European position appears now to realize that the
common position is not a good position and has failed. Change in
Cuba will never come about through external pressure," said
Carlos Alzugaray, a former Cuban ambassador to the EU.
($1 = 0.7343 Euro)
(Additional reporting by Daniel Trotta in Havana and David
Adams in Miami; editing by Gareth Jones and G Crosse)