Feb 16 Mothers who had low vitamin D
levels while they were pregnant are more likely to have a child
with a language impairment than mothers who had higher levels of
the vitamin, according to an Australian study.
While the study, published in Pediatrics, did not show that
low levels of the vitamin itself caused the issues, researchers
said it pointed to a "plausible association" that warranted more
Earlier studies had shown some links between low vitamin D
during pregnancy and problems in children such as weaker bones,
asthma and poor growth, said Andrew Whitehouse, lead author of
the study, who was based at the University of Western Australia.
"The effects of lower maternal vitamin D levels on the
developing offspring is not fully understand," he added.
Sunlight is a primary source of vitamin D.
Twenty years ago Whitehouse and his colleagues measured the
vitamin D levels of more than 700 women who were about halfway
through their pregnancy, seeking to determine whether levels of
the vitamin might have anything to do with children's later
behavioral and language development.
Five and 10 years later, they tested the children of these
mothers to measure their behavioral and emotional development,
and language skills.
The researchers split the mothers into four groups, from
lowest to highest vitamin D levels, and found that the risk of
having a child with emotional or behavioral issues was the same
for each group.
When they looked at language skills, though, the team found
that mothers in the group with the lowest vitamin D levels were
more likely to have a child with a language impairment, as
determined from scores on a vocabulary test, than mothers in the
highest vitamin D category.
For instance, about 18 percent of mothers in the lowest
group had a child with a language issue at age 10, compared to
roughly eight percent of mothers in the highest group.
"The logical thought is that maternal vitamin D
insufficiency during pregnancy is affecting the normal course of
brain development," Whitehouse told Reuters Health by email.
"If vitamin D insufficiency during prenatal life is a cause
of childhood language difficulties -- and this still needs to be
determined conclusively -- then vitamin D supplementation of
pregnant women may be an important next step."
He made clear, though, that the study does not show a
cause-and-effect relationship between vitamin D and language
Other researchers said that one factor that will be
important to tease out in future studies is whether obesity
might be involved.
"We know that obesity before pregnancy is associated with
poor vitamin D status in pregnancy, and we know that obese moms
are more likely to have children with developmental delays and
cognitive impairments," said Lisa Bodnar, a professor at the
University of Pittsburgh who was not involved in the study.
She added that it will be important for future studies to
determine if vitamin D is in fact to blame for the language
impairments, because it's a simple problem to fix with
(Reporting from New York by Kerry Grens at Reuters Health;
editing by Elaine Lies)