* Transaction tax, scam at National Spot Exchange deters
* Government fails to push through reforms needed to expand
* ICEX to cease operations within months
By Rajendra Jadhav and Siddesh Mayenkar
MUMBAI, Feb 7 The Indian Commodity Exchange
(ICEX) is set to fold due to plummetting trading volume as a
result of the government's failure to liberalise and investors
retreat from futures markets after a major financial scandal at
another exchange last year.
It will be the first to go, in what has become an
overcrowded segment since India first allowed futures trading in
commodities in 2003.
Launched a little over four years ago, ICEX grew to become
India's fourth largest commodity exchange and its demise would
be symptomatic of a wider malaise.
Confidence in India's commodity markets suffered a massive
blow last July, when the National Spot Exchange Ltd
(NSEL)abruptly suspended trading in most of its contracts.
Subsequent investigations revealed a 55-billion-rupee ($880
million) fraud, as the exchange defaulted on obligations to
While there has been no official notification that ICEX will
shut, the exchange has no tradeable contracts after April 18.
ICEX has already ceased trading natural gas and iron ore,
while all contracts for other commodities like soybean, rapeseed
and silver will expire in two months.
Though ICEX did not respond to telephone calls and emails
seeking comment, a member of the board of directors told Reuters
that operations will be suspended in the next few months.
"It ran out of money and anchor investors are not interested
in putting in more," the director said on condition of
ICEX's investors include state-run trading firm MMTC Ltd
, India's biggest importer of gold, and a unit of
Reliance Capital, who both hold 26 percent.
Indiabulls Financial Services Ltd, one of India's
leading non-banking financial companies, has a 14 percent
holding, while Indian Potash has 10 percent.
They are not the only ones regretting their investment in
commodity exchanges, as trading volumes collapsed across the
board over the past year.
With two months of the financial year remaining it looks
like the combined transactions of all Indian exchanges will be
around half the 170.46 trillion Indian rupees ($2.73 trillion)
that they notched in 2012/13.
"Foreign investors are not happy," said an official with a
leading exchange, who declined to be identified. "If they see
returns are not coming anytime soon, they may sell stakes."
TRANSACTION TAX, GOLD CURBS
The retreat has already begun at India's biggest commodity
exchange, Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX). MCX is one
of several exchanges created and operated by Financial
Technologies (India) Ltd. NSEL was a stablemate.
In the last four months, foreign investors have cut their
holdings in MCX from nearly 37 percent to around 25 percent.
NYSE Euronext was the biggest seller since September,
disposing of a 4.73 percent stake. Swiss Finance Corporation and
Government of Singapore Investment Corporation both cut their
holdings by 1.24 percent apiece.
The Mauritius unit of Bank of America Merrill Lynch
sold the last 2.79 percent of its stake in January, but the
buyer was a fellow foreign investor -- the Mauritius unit of
private equity manager Blackstone Group LP.
Foot-dragging over crucial reforms by the government
exacerbated investor fatigue.
A bill was introduced to parliament in 2006 that would open
the gate for banks, mutual funds and international players to
participate in India's futures market. It is still sat there.
With a change of government expected after an election due
in May, the fate of the Forward Contract (Regulation) Amendment
Bill is very uncertain.
The government has dealt other blows to these markets.
Last year, it introduced a commodity transaction tax (CTT),
applicable to non-agricultural and some agricultural
commodities. The tax has driven away market players like jobbers
And as the rupee plunged last summer, the government slapped
curbs on gold imports, hurting exchanges like MCX, who counted
gold futures as their biggest single market.
"The commodity markets are witnessing some challenging
times," said Samir Shah, managing director of the National
Commodity and Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), the country's
second-biggest exchange by turnover. "In addition to the impact
of CTT, the series of events that unfolded in the NSEL case
shook investors' confidence."