TOKYO Aug 28 Prime Minister Shinzo Abe faces a
hard choice in coming months: whether to hike Japan's sales tax
again, raising the risks of damaging a fragile recovery, or to
back off and shake markets' confidence in his commitment to
curbing runaway government debt.
After the economy stumbled into its deepest quarterly
contraction in three years when Abe raised the tax in April,
senior government officials are broaching the possibility of
delaying a planned further increase in a bid to keep the
recovery on track.
Analysts generally expect Abe to give the go-ahead in
December to raising the tax in October 2015 to 10 percent from 8
percent. But the decision promises to be politically divisive,
coming just as the government hammers out details of a promised
cut in corporate taxes.
The government's "basic stance is to raise" the tax,
although more care will be needed this time than when Abe
decided to raise the tax from 5 percent - a decision that
dominated market attention and political news coverage - said
Vice Economy Minister Yasutoshi Nishimura.
Staying with the current plan, which doubles the sales tax
over the course of 18 months, "would deal a considerable blow to
the economy," Nishimura told Reuters on Wednesday. He expressed
concern that the damage from the April hike is proving
prolonged, while wages are not keeping up with inflation and
exports remain sluggish.
BOLDEST MOVE IN DECADES
"The economy is at a make-or-break point on whether it could
enter a virtuous cycle and return to sustained growth by
overcoming the pullback in demand," he said.
The two-stage rise of the consumption tax is Japan's boldest
move in nearly two decades to rein in government debt that has
ballooned to more than twice GDP, the biggest burden in the
The fiscal tightening was agreed on by the previous
government and Abe's current coalition, with the provision that
the government would have to certify the economy was healthy
enough to weather each of the increases.
The powerful Finance Ministry is pushing hard for the tax
hike to go ahead to lock in revenue so the government can meet
its promise to balance the budget, excluding new bond sales and
debt servicing, by the fiscal year ending in March 2021.
Failure to make steady progress toward that goal could roil
the Japanese government bond market, economists say, and
possibly spook investors in other markets as well.
A WARY CENTRAL BANK
The central bank, which now buys the equivalent of 70
percent of new government debt in a massive easing programme
aimed at killing deflation, is also wary.
Bank of Japan Governor Haruhiko Kuroda avoids treading
directly into Abe's fiscal policy purview. But the central
bank's economic forecasts assume the full tax increase, and
Kuroda this month urged the government to stick to its strong
determination in restoring public finances, which has helped
keep bond markets stable.
But pro-growth advisers to Abe - whose top policy priority
is to pull the world's third-biggest economy out of nearly two
decades of deflation and tepid growth - are urging him not to
rush into a tax hike that could derail recovery.
Economist Koichi Hamada, an adviser to Abe who's not a
government official, suggests softening the impact by raising
the tax rate in stages.
"As we have seen, the shock from the consumption tax hike
could be large," Hamada, professor emeritus of economics at Yale
University, told Reuters on Wednesday. "So, ideally, we could
raise it in a staged manner, such as 1 percentage point in
October 2015 and another point after that."
Nishimura's boss, Economy Minister Akira Amari, said last
week that it's best to raise the tax as planned, but "in the
event we don't raise the consumption tax, if we don't
demonstrate a solid fiscal reform plan, it would hurt confidence
in Japan's government debt."
Abe himself has been tight-lipped about the decision, saying
only that he will make a comprehensive decision after reviewing
third-quarter GDP and other data.
For now, putting off the tax hike is just "a tail risk,"
said Hideo Kumano, chief economist at Dai-ichi Life Research
MORE HARM THAN GOOD?
"People around the administration may float various
opinions, but those in the driver's seat must be well aware that
putting off the sales tax hike would cause more harm than good,"
said Kumano, a former BOJ official.
Still, the politics of the decision will not make things
easy for Abe. The debate will coincide with a decision on
details of a promise to cut the corporate tax rate from around
35 percent, among the highest in world, to below 30 percent.
Raising the sales tax while cutting corporate taxes could
heighten the impression that the Abe government is
redistributing wealth from individuals to big companies.
Nearly two-thirds of the public opposes the tax hike, double
those who favour it, a Nikkei newspaper survey showed on Monday.
By contrast, private-sector economists strongly support the
move: a Reuters survey this week showed 18 of 22 analysts
advocating the increase.
Japan's main big-business lobby, Keidanren, supports raising
the sales tax to 10 percent as planned, although some companies,
especially those dependent on personal consumption, oppose the
"We hope they'll delay a conclusion" on the tax hike as
consumption remains weak, said Mitsuo Takahashi, chief financial
officer at major discount retailer Don Quijote Co.
(Additional reporting by Kaori Kaneko and Ritsuko Shimizu;
Writing by William Mallard; Editing by Richard Borsuk)