| NUEVO LAREDO, Mexico, June 12
NUEVO LAREDO, Mexico, June 12 To grasp the
difficulties Mexico faces in capitalizing on a North American
shale boom, just wander into the dusty landscape due south of
the U.S. border.
On one side of the fence, thousands of wells work around the
clock in Texas to produce record volumes of shale oil and gas,
transforming towns like Carrizo Springs in a modern-day gold
On the other side, violent drug cartels roam above untapped
shale riches, leaving behind a trail of blood. The relatively
few conventional wells operated by state oil giant Pemex and its
contractors close down overnight as a security precaution.
But surging crime, while dramatic, is just one of many
obstacles thwarting a Mexican shale boom that is seen as years
off at best.
"Organized crime is an additional operating cost companies
will be keeping a close eye on," said Alberto Islas, head of
Mexico City-based consultancy firm Risk Evaluation.
Bullet-riddled corpses are piling up in and around the city
of Reynosa in the heart of one of Mexico's richest shale
deposits, a major flashpoint of gang wars where hundreds of
troops have deployed in recent weeks.
Since April, there have been dozens of murders in Reynosa, a
city of 600,000, as the Gulf Cartel battles the infamous Zetas.
The dead include a top Tamaulipas state intelligence officer.
The head bodyguard to the state governor has been implicated in
"We must reinvent ourselves or die," said Federico Alanis,
owner of a family-owned aluminum business in Reynosa.
He and others are hoping transformation will come from a
major energy reform passed late last year that ended state oil
giant Pemex's 75-year-old monopoly and promises billions in new
investment. The reform is "a blessing from God," Alanis said.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration says Mexico's
total combined shale oil and gas potential is the world's
seventh-largest at 117 billion barrels of oil equivalent, far
more than the 60 billion Pemex estimates.
While Pemex has limited shale expertise and has focused on
more profitable oil and gas projects further south, the company
believes Mexico holds 32 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe)
in shale oil alone.
That exceeds the deepwater potential Pemex sees in the Gulf
of Mexico. That area is often seen as the main advantage of
energy reform, whose fine print is still being debated in
But when it comes to shale development, Mexico is just
In the last few years, Pemex has drilled fewer than 20 test
shale wells in the shale-rich Burgos basin, an extension of the
Eagle Ford Formation in southern Texas.
"It's all brand new to us," said Alberto de Leon, president
of the local chapter of employers' federation Coparmex in the
Mexican border city Nuevo Laredo, right on the edge of Eagle
By contrast, thousands of wells sunk in Eagle Ford churn out
more than 1.2 million barrels each day, up from just a few
hundred barrels in 2008.
Although Nuevo Laredo is the busiest border transit point
for trucks to and from the United States, not one oil company
has set up an office there, de Leon said.
That is not quite the response the government was hoping for
from investors when it revamped the energy sector in December.
BIG POTENTIAL, MANY OBSTACLES
With barely any processing plants or pipelines to move oil
and gas in the far north, a near-absence of specialized workers,
and scant supplies of water needed for shale development, Mexico
is decades behind its northern neighbor.
And citing environmental concerns, the country's center-left
political parties are pushing to ban hydraulic fracturing, or
fracking, which is used to unlock oil and gas from dense shale
Meanwhile, Pemex's shale program currently focuses on its
existing 19 test wells in Burgos and two test blocks: its
Galaxia area northwest of Nuevo Laredo by the border and the
Limonaria area further south. The test areas, plus other shale
exploration will get investments of $800 million over the next
12 months, said Gustavo Hernandez, head of Pemex's exploration
and production arm.
Limonaria's geology is not an extension of Eagle Ford, but
part of Mexico's Tampico-Misantla basin, the country's biggest
shale basin at nearly 35 billion boe, according to Pemex data.
Through its Newpek unit, Mexican industrial conglomerate
Alfa operates more than 200 wells in Eagle Ford. But
it has yet to announce any plans to venture into shale in its
"What we're trying to figure out is exactly what kind of
formation and what kind of area will be available in Mexico to
be the best one in which we can participate," Raul Mijares,
Alfa's energy director, said recently.
Pemex is awaiting the September outcome of a so-called Round
Zero allocation in which it has asked for rights to 9 billion
boe in shale resources, but specific blocks are unknown.
While energy ministry officials say the first exploration
and production contracts to go up for grabs next year will
include shale gas blocks, they may prove to be a victim of the
reform's success at attracting investments to lower-cost
Energy consultancy Wood Mackenzie estimates 109 mature oil
fields, accounting for less than 2 percent of current output of
about 2.5 million bpd, are likely to lure investment before
costlier shale fields.
While most other sector analysts are also downbeat on
Mexico's near-term shale prospects, a notable exception is
Edward Morse, global head of commodities research for U.S. bank
Although he says security is a concern in parts of Mexico,
he cites recent output gains in Argentina's massive Vaca Muerta
shale play, despite fierce resource nationalism and other
"Barriers are very high," he said, "but barriers in
Argentina were at least as high as barriers in Mexico."
(Additional reporting by Dave Graham; Editing by Simon Gardner
and Lisa Von Ahn)