* Distillers traditionally depend on fuel oil
* Diageo says biomass an 'integral part' of strategy
* Smaller players aided by government subsidies
By Nina Chestney
SPEYSIDE, Scotland, April 4 Scotch whisky
distillers are burning their unwanted grain byproducts, wood
chips and other types of biomass for a source of energy in
remote areas of the Highlands, where gas links are scarce and
fuel oil is pricey.
The production of Scotch whisky has evolved over more than
500 years and is steeped in tradition. It is also a big
business, generating 4 billion pounds ($6 billion) a year in
exports - a quarter of all Britain's food and drink sales
New distilleries are being built to meet demand from over
200 countries around the world including new markets in Asia,
Latin America and the Middle East. Family-run, centuries-old
distilleries are trying to minimise operational costs.
Most distilleries in Scotland have relied on heavy fuel oil
to generate heat for distilling processes, but biomass such as
wood, plant-based material or organic waste is now an
increasingly attractive and reliable option.
"As we expand capacity, biomass will be an integral part of
what we are doing going forward," said Gerry O'Hagan,
operational excellence director of spirits and wine for Diageo
, the world's biggest spirits company.
In the whisky-making heartland of Speyside in north-east
Scotland, Diageo opened a 45 million pound distillery four years
ago at Roseisle. Barley fields surround the modern industrial
building, with glistening glass walls enclosing huge copper
The distillery, which has no access to a gas line, produces
10.5 million litres a year, which is matured for a minimum of
three years before being used in brands such as Johnnie Walker.
Diageo has spent 17 million pounds on a bioenergy plant with
a capacity of 8 to 10 megawatts (MW), or enough to power up to
10,000 homes. The distillery gets over half of its energy from
the biomass plant, which also saves around 10,000 tonnes of
carbon dioxide emissions a year.
The plant generates energy by burning byproducts of the
distilling process such as spent grains, which would otherwise
have been sent to farmers for use in animal feed.
The rest of the distillery's energy comes from burning heavy
fuel oil, which is more harmful to the environment and more
expensive. Diageo hopes to increase renewable energy to around
80 percent of the plant's total by mixing its byproducts with
"There is concern about energy (prices) in the long term and
about how we can make ourselves as self-sufficient as we
possibly can," O'Hagan said.
Diageo also has installed a bigger, 30 MW bioenergy plant at
its Cameronbridge distillery near Edinburgh; is building another
plant at its Glendullan distillery in Speyside and has plans for
a third at a new malt whisky distillery, also in Speyside.
"There are around 20 new distillery projects at the moment.
Some of them are tiny, but around half are in the planning
stage, and many of them are asking about biomass," said Julie
Hesketh-Laird, director of operation and technical affairs at
the Scottish Whisky Association.
"It makes good business to keep your energy costs down," she
Today's distillers have to contend with volatile energy and
commodity prices; often uncertain barley harvest yields due to
more extreme weather patterns; and customers such as
supermarkets that are scrutinising their green credentials.
North Sea oil production is in decline, and the debate
around Scottish independence has raised the question of who
might control the $2.5 trillion of reserves, which adds to
uncertainty about future oil supply.
"There is a question mark about heavy oil supply and how
much there is left. As an industry we don't look at tomorrow or
next week, we are looking at 12, 15 or 20 years down the line,"
said Graham Eunson, general manager of the smaller Tomatin
Smaller, more traditional distilleries must rely on
government subsidies to make the economics of biomass work.
Under a scheme called the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI), the
government rewards the use of renewable energy technology.
Remote Tomatin, 315 metres above sea level on the eastern
edge of the Monadhliath Mountains, produces 2.5 million litres a
year. Two thirds of its over 40-strong workforce live in housing
on its 140-acre estate.
The plant is one of the oldest distilleries in Scotland,
with whisky thought to have been made at the site as early as
the 16th century. But it has experienced troubled times, going
into liquidation in the 1980s before being bought by Japanese
sake maker Takara Shuzo Co.
Tomatin, which has no gas links, had relied on fuel oil
until last year, when it installed a 4 MW biomass boiler that
burns wood pellets.
"To make that sort of investment on an unknown fuel source
is a gamble. It is still perceived as a risk, because if it
doesn't work, it's an expensive mistake," Eunson said.
"When we learnt we could get RHI payments, it was a key
driver. As much as would love to be the most environmentally
friendly firm, if the price of production (from biomass) is
twice as high, it would put us at a huge disadvantage."
Biomass has now replaced 82 percent of the fuel oil it would
have used, and Tomatin has cut its annual fuel costs by a third.
Furthermore, "if something happens which impacts the oil
price, we are now safeguarded from that to a certain extent,"
($1 = 0.6019 British Pounds)
(editing by Jane Baird)