* Unions say 77 percent turnout, govt says impact limited
* Government vows to push forward with reforms
* Hundreds of thousands join protests across Spain
* Pockets of violence flare in Barcelona
By Carlos Ruano and Tracy Rucinski
BARCELONA/MADRID, March 29 Spanish workers angry
at a labour reform the government calls an "unstoppable"
necessity staged a general strike on Thursday, bringing
factories and ports to a standstill and igniting flashes of
violence on the streets.
Hundreds of thousands attended largely peaceful marches
throughout Spain, waving red flags and beating drums against the
budget cuts of Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, who was elected by
a landslide only four months ago on a mandate to dig the country
out of a debt crisis that has unnerved its European neighbours.
Police fired rubber bullets to disperse crowds in downtown
Barcelona after hooded youths threw rocks at windows and set
rubbish bins alight in Spain's second city, where - as in much
of Spain - unemployment has been devastating among the young.
In Madrid, demonstrators chanted slogans and carried banners
protesting against the conservative government's measures, which
will make it cheaper for companies to fire workers and will
dismantle a nationwide system of collective pay bargaining.
"We're here because we are really angry," said Alba Valle, a
23-year-old media technician in the capital who, like almost one
young Spaniard in two, cannot find work.
"It's a step backwards for the country."
Though organisers said millions attended evening marches in
110 cities local media estimates, in the absence of data from
authorities, put the crowds in only the hundreds of thousands.
Some observers see a degree of resignation about the
prospects of avoiding new austerity goals dictated by concerns
in the European Union that Spain risks going bust.
At the same time, however, the country is tipping into its
second recession since the end of 2009 and some observers expect
at least another million people to join already swollen
unemployment lines, straining the budget. The jobless rate is
already 23 percent, the highest in the 27-member EU bloc.
Spaniards have so far been largely tolerant of Rajoy's
efforts to reform labour law, much of which dates back to times
when levels of employment were substantially higher. His aim is
to meet strict EU-imposed targets for the government budget
deficit to ensure Madrid avoids a Greek-style debt crisis.
But the general strike, the first in 18 months, showed that
patience may be wearing thin. The largest union put support
among its members for the strike at 77 percent. The government
said the work day went normally but gave no overall tally.
"We don't have much hope, but this is just the beginning,"
said Trini Cuesta, a 58-year-old employee at a public hospital
in Barcelona. "It's not just about labour reform, we're against
policies that are provoking social and economic ruin," she said.
"Social protests must increase."
Police made a total of 176 arrests and there were 104
injuries, the Interior Ministry said, saying the day had been
calm and the strike had limited impact.
It halted production at factories from Barcelona in the
northeast to Cadiz in the southwest. Unions reported full
stoppages at General Motors Espana, Renault,
ArcelorMittal and Acerinox. Urban transport
networks were mostly cut to skeleton services.
Rajoy's government said it was committed to making reforms
that it argues will help to reduce unemployment by making the
labour market more efficient. "The agenda for reform is
unstoppable," Labour Minister Fatima Banez said on Thursday.
The police presence was heavy around parliament, where
politicians put in a longer work day than usual as Rajoy sought
approval for five different measures, including funding for
indebted local governments to pay their suppliers.
Union members gathered in major cities where some plastered
stickers on shop windows reading "Closed for Strike" - but in
fact many of the stores remained open for business.
Tourists were locked out of the Alhambra, the 14th-century
Moorish palace in the southern city of Granada that is one of
Europe's great cultural monuments and a popular attraction.
Many workers crossed picket lines, saying they feared losing
their jobs or losing the average of around 100 euros ($130) to
be docked from the pay cheques of strikers.
While Spaniards fortunate to have jobs on traditional
contracts are fighting to preserve their benefit, many others,
especially the young, can find only short-term contracts of
typically six months duration which offer little job security.
Many such workers fear employers might punish them if they
go on strike and not renew contracts when they expire - an army
of unemployed is waiting at the gate for any job going.
Similar labour reforms, for similar reasons, are being
battled over elsewhere in Europe, notably in Italy, where Prime
Minister Mario Monti, a technocrat appointed to avert a debt
crisis in Rome, has also run into heavy opposition this month.
LONG YEAR OF DEMONSTRATIONS?
Fewer than a fifth of Spanish employees are currently
affiliated with the country's two biggest unions and many feel
these organisations do not represent the wider workforce.
"A lot of people actually blame the unions in part for the
rigidity in the labour market and lack of competitiveness, so
they aren't exactly in the position to rally a lot of people and
the support for the strike reflects that," said David Bach,
political analyst at IE business school in Madrid.
However, union members are ready for a long fight. "This is
the largest cut in rights since anyone can remember. There has
to be a better way to get out of this crisis," UGT union
employee Marta Lois, 40, said on Madrid's Gran Via, a central
avenue where protesters blocked traffic early in the day.
"Don't forget this is just the first major event of what is
likely going to be a long year of demonstrations against
government policies," Antonio Barroso, political analyst with
the consultancy Eurasia Group said.
Rajoy said on Tuesday his administration would pass a "very,
very, austere budget" on Friday. His goal of cutting the deficit
this year to 5.3 percent of gross domestic product implies
nominal cuts of at least 35 billion euros ($46.63 billion).
The cuts are meant to keep borrowing costs down as well as
working towards meeting the EU's 3 percent budget deficit limit
next year. But some economists say they will deepen the looming
recession, potentially having the very opposite effect.
Despite the promises to push on with reforms aimed at
winning approval from Brussels, Rajoy's People's Party suffered
a surprise setback in a regional election on Sunday, meaning he
must measure his steps to avoid provoking wider discontent.