* Critical equipment was in basements, which flooded
* Wide swath of storm took out backup facilities miles away
By Aaron Pressman and Joseph Menn
Nov 3 As Sandy hammered the northeast United
States this week killing more than 100 people, contingency plans
were washed away and businesses had to improvise as the storm
knocked out power to millions and stranded entire communities.
Internet sites were kept online only because an impromptu
bucket brigade ferried 5-gallon jugs of diesel fuel up 17
stories to a rooftop generator. Billions of dollars of stock
trades were frozen and sidelined. Even the United Nations closed
its complex when flood waters knocked out power.
Some of the world's largest companies had contingency plans
but in many cases they could not withstand the fury of the
raging waters that poured into parts of the five boroughs that
make up New York City.
"Most companies have a disaster recovery plan or business
continuity plan but never test them or practice them," said
Vincent Renaud, vice president at the Uptime Institute, a New
York-based research group focused on digital infrastructure.
"Mission critical infrastructure equipment -
engine-generators, fuel storage, pumps, UPS, cooling systems -
need to be placed out of harm's way," he said. "No one ever
expected to have such a disaster on their hands like Sandy in
New York City. Consequently, no planning for this level of
catastrophe was done."
Media mogul Barry Diller's IAC/InterActiveCorp,
which owns Newsweek Daily Beast, Ask.com, Urban Spoon and other
popular websites, had to close its headquarters when the flood
waters from the Hudson River entered the building, which lost
power during the storm.
"We are working to restore all building operations," an IAC
spokeswoman said on Friday. "Most employees have been working
While IAC's properties remained online, among the more
noticeable website crashes was the Huffington Post, whose parent
AOL Inc relied on a back-up center in Newark, New
Jersey, about 11 miles (18 km) from its main office in
Manhattan. All three of the telecommunications providers serving
the Newark location had outages the night Sandy hit.
"If I were Arianna Huffington, I would be as diverse
geographically as possible," said Gartner analyst Akshay Sharma,
adding that Chicago would be a safer back-up location.
At Verizon Communications Inc, one of the top U.S.
telecommunications companies, a giant switching station at 140
West Street in the financial district was knocked out by Sandy's
floodwaters. The company had moved its backup generators out of
the basement after 9/11, but left under street level the tanks
of fuel and fuel pumps. So when they were soaked, downtown New
York communications were ravaged.
David Doddridge, who runs a construction and building code
consulting firm in New York City, said fuel for rooftop
generators is usually stored indoors and below street level for
both practical and safety reasons. Fuel delivery trucks rely on
gravity to load tanks, and roof-top fuel storage would raise
concerns about lightning strikes and weather-related corrosion.
"The basement is really the most practical spot," Doddridge
said. "Not every scenario can fit every situation. From a
logistics standpoint, fuel storage is typically in the basement.
And it's much safer to keep these inside."
While Sandy was dubbed the frankenstorm because it was an
unusual combination of a tropical disturbance and a colder
system moving down from the north, scientists had been warning
for years that a major hurricane could sweep up the Eastern
Seaboard and deliver an overwhelming flood surge to New York.
Malcolm Bowman, a professor of oceanography at the Marine
Sciences Research Center at the State University of New York at
Stony Brook, wrote in a 2009 paper that a so-called 100-year
flood could overrun parts of lower Manhattan, Hoboken in New
Jersey, Staten Island and New York's La Guardia Airport.
"It was just a matter of time," Bowman said after Sandy hit.
"It was all almost prophetic."
He argued that the region's piecemeal approach to address
flooding needs to be replaced by a broad system of surge
barriers or levees similar to those that defend low-lying
European cities. Protecting individual facilities is "sensible
and needs to be done," he said. "But at the end of the day, it
doesn't protect you against a mega storm's knockout punch."
Experts said companies have to weigh preparing for storm
risks against other disaster scenarios, such as a terrorist
attack or an uncontrolled influenza epidemic.
"Scary predictions appear all the time - sorting them
through beforehand is tough," said Ernest Sternberg, chairman of
the department of urban and regional planning at the University
of Buffalo's school of architecture, who has studied New York's
"One must watch out for and prevent 'hindsight bias' in
which we rashly judge people acting under great uncertainty when
they are making decisions about future disaster possibilities."
Some contingency plans never got a chance. On Wall Street,
the New York Stock Exchange initially planned to switch trading
to an all-electronic platform in case of a weather emergency.
But NYSE Euronext reversed that decision after some
traders said they were not prepared for the plan.
Many major trading firms, including Goldman Sachs Group Inc
, CME Group Inc's NYMEX, and Citigroup Inc,
were in the flood-prone evacuation zone, which did indeed flood
and as of Thursday still had no power.
After the NYSE resumed trading on Wednesday, some firms
still had trouble. Knight Capital Group in Jersey City,
one of the biggest brokers for retail stock trading and
exchange-traded funds, shut down its platform for half a day
when fuel supplies for its back-up generator ran low.
Knight has a backup facility in Purchase, New York, about 30
miles (48 km) north of New York City and out of harm's way, but
did not feel confident about switching over its service in the
middle of the day. The firm asked clients to trade elsewhere
"out of an abundance of caution."
Many companies have generators, fuel or pumps in the
basement or at ground level in the flood zone. Others had only
enough fuel to last a couple of days, having failed to
anticipate a power outage lasting a week or more.
"It's liable to be up and down for the next week," said
James Cowie, co-founder of Renesys, which measures Internet
performance. "There are people now revisiting their best
practices, a lot of people who did not do adequate tests."
Web-hosting service Peer1's emergency generators were on the
roof, but its basement fuel tanks were flooded. The
Vancouver-based company scrambled and came up with a creative
solution: It found new fuel in 50-gallon drums, and had
employees pour the contents into 5-gallon jerry cans and take
them in bucket brigades up 17 flights of stairs for 48 hours.
Peer1 CEO Fabio Banducci said the team beefed up from three
the first day to an eventual 35, including customers and
MEETING IN 'BANTANAMO'
Sandy's punch also hit the U.N. building along Manhattan's
East River, which was closed for three days after floodwaters
breached its basement levels and is still not fully functional.
The U.N. Security Council had an urgent meeting so it
gathered in a spartan, container-like structure that housed
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's interim offices - a building
nicknamed "Walmart" and "Bantanamo" because of its utter lack of
The decision to locate critical facilities in the lower
levels of the more than six-decade old U.N. building had been
based on analysis of weather patterns going back to the 19th
century, U.N. Under-Secretary-General for Management Yukio
"This was a very unprecedented hurricane," Takasu said,
adding that the U.N. management might consider relocating
certain infrastructure after conducting a "lessons learned"
assessment of the impact of Sandy had on the United Nations.