* City seen as bastion of loyalty to Assad before uprising
* Businessmen hit by attacks, kidnapping, extortion
* Rebel groups, government-linked gangs blamed
* Political splits emerge within business community
* Industrial zones operating at 5-10 percent of capacity
By Suleiman Al-Khalidi
AMMAN, Oct 24 Top Syrian businessman Fares
Shehabi says he lives in constant fear of being kidnapped by
rebels fighting loyalist forces for control of his home city
Aleppo. But he clings on in the city, saying it is his duty to
try to keep its economy running.
"I was attacked three or four times and they tried to kidnap
me many times," said Shehabi, 40, scion of a wealthy merchant
family with interests ranging from pharmaceuticals and food to
real estate and banking.
In one attack, assailants riddled one of his factories with
gunfire and tried to plant explosives in it, he said. He now
moves around with bodyguards, sometimes in disguise.
Nineteen months into the uprising against President Bashar
al-Assad, Syria's biggest city and main industrial centre has
been crippled by the fighting. Located among the olive groves
and pistachio trees of northwest Syria, it has a population of
about 3 million in peacetime.
In addition to widespread damage to factories and shops and
an exodus of refugees from neighbourhoods caught in the
fighting, Aleppo's community of businessmen and industrialists
has been hit hard. Some of the wealthiest are linked to Assad's
government through partnerships with officials.
Many have fled with their families to places such as
Lebanon, Dubai and Egypt. Others have stayed, but say they are
targets of violence, extortion and kidnapping attempts by rebel
groups and government-linked gangs known as shabiha.
The businessmen developed Aleppo into Syria's economic
engine, the focus of its export trade and the seat of its
pharmaceutical, textile and plastics industries. So the damage
to the merchant class bodes ill for a recovery of the Syrian
economy when the fighting eventually ends.
Armed groups in Aleppo are "attacking every businessman,
small or big, whether he has a factory or a workshop, if he does
not want to meet their demands and buy them weapons," Shehabi
said by telephone from the city.
Aleppo's business community dates back many centuries, to
when the city was a trading centre on the Silk Road between East
and West. In recent years it has been seen as a bastion of
loyalty to Assad's rule; some of its members were accused of
financing loyalist thugs who attacked demonstrators in the early
days of the uprising.
Heading the city's chamber of industry, Shehabi worked
closely with the government to develop its manufacturing base,
which he estimates accounts for almost half of Syria's
industrial capacity. Before a rebel offensive in the city began
in July, Aleppo was a major source of revenue for Assad.
Shehabi is one of four top Syrian businessmen who were
slapped with European Union sanctions last year for providing
economic support to the Syrian regime. He said some of his
assets abroad were frozen, and that he was contesting the
penalty through a law firm in Belgium.
"It violated my rights and they did not hear my side of the
story. I challenge them to provide a single proof that I
financially backed any side," he said.
Although he blames the rebels for most of the damage to the
city, Shehabi is now also critical of authorities' handling of
the crisis, saying the government has been slow to promote
political reforms and to fight organised crime.
"Aleppo is being punished by the revolution and now
neglected by the state," he said.
At least 100 businessmen have been kidnapped since the start
of the conflict, the chamber of industry estimates. Scores of
factories have been set ablaze after their owners refused to pay
extortion demands, according to several local businessmen who
requested anonymity out of concern for their personal safety.
Many industrialists now pay protection money to gangs, with
monthly fees ranging from $4,000 to $5,000 plus a downpayment
that can go up to $100,000 depending on the size of the factory,
When two fires last December gutted the German-equipped
textile plants of the Olabi family, known for their close ties
to the authorities, it was clear that much of the violence was
becoming politically motivated, the businessmen said.
Panic began to set into the business community in the weeks
before the July rebel offensive, when the body of ice cream
factory owner Ibn Nayef was found. He had refused to heed a call
by rebel groups for a general strike.
The most publicised attacks were against the prominent
Alweis business family, which lost two of its members in what
appeared to be revenge killings for failing to pay protection
money. A third member, Jihad Alweis, owner of big milk
production plants in the city, escaped an attempt on his life
and has since fled the country, Aleppo businessmen said.
The general manager of Aleppo Cables Co, Mohammad Mustapha
Jweid, was kidnapped from his home by a gang a month ago; he was
beaten up and released three days later.
Among the most prominent recent kidnappings has been that of
businessman Mohammed Maher al-Malah, released after a 5 million
Syrian pound (about $80,000) ransom was paid, businessmen said.
Aleppo's industrialists say much of the violence has its
roots in Syria's rural-urban divide, and the envy and antagonism
which poor rebels from the countryside feel for wealthy
businessmen in the city.
Some of the owners of Aleppo's textile factories have moved
to Egypt, which has a major textile industry, and become
involved in the business there in order to preserve their links
to export markets in Europe that have been built over decades.
Shehabi said that on a recent visit to Egypt, he met Syrian
businessmen who would come back to Aleppo as soon as security
But the hatreds created by the uprising may prevent a return
to business as usual even when the fighting stops. Aleppo's
merchant community is increasingly polarised between those who
intend to stick with the regime until the end and those who
clandestinely sympathise with or even support the rebels.
Commerce and trust between these camps may not resume under
any circumstances. Yusef Abdul Wahed, an Aleppo plastics
manufacturer who has now left the country, said he felt little
sympathy for industrialists who used their political connections
to make unfair profits before the war.
"They benefited in previous years and when the crisis
happened, they were asked to pay the salaries of the shabiha,"
In any case, the damage to the city's manufacturing
facilities and infrastructure will take years to repair. Shehabi
estimated Aleppo's industrial zones were now operating at only 5
to 10 percent of capacity.
Shelling and close-quarters combat have destroyed hundreds
of factories and shops, filling streets with rubble. The
state-of-the-art Sheikh Najjar industrial zone to the east of
the city, which attracted hundreds of millions of dollars of
investment, is now little more than a ghost town where guards
try to protect some factories at great risk to their lives.
"What is happening is the wholesale destruction of Syria's
infrastructure. The stoppage of industry is a big catastrophe -
for over two months there has been total stoppage," said Fouad
Jumaa, a leading furniture maker in Aleppo.
"We are bracing ourselves for a long period of disruption.
This is destruction in every sense."