U.N. climate talks in Bonn from April 9-11 will review efforts to tackle global warming after the Copenhagen summit in December fell short of a legally binding text sought by many nations.
Following are national plans for curbing greenhouse gas emissions submitted this year to the U.N. Climate Change Secretariat. Many of the pledges hinge on actions by others:
INDUSTRIALISED NATIONS -- EMISSIONS CUTS BY 2020, FROM 1990 LEVELS UNLESS STATED (A scenario by the U.N. panel of climate scientists indicate industrialized nations would have to cut by 25 to 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 to avoid the worst impacts)
UNITED STATES - President Barack Obama wants to cut U.S. emissions by 17 percent from 2005 levels, or 4 percent from 1990 levels. But legislation is stalled in the U.S. Senate and public concern about global warming has declined in 2010.
EU (27 nations) - 20 percent, or 30 percent if others act.
RUSSIA - 15 to 25 percent.
JAPAN - 25 percent as part of a "fair and effective international framework."
CANADA - 17 percent from 2005 levels, matching U.S. goal.
AUSTRALIA - 5 percent below 2000 levels or as much as 25 percent if there is an ambitious global deal. The range is 3-23 percent below 1990.
BELARUS - 5 to 10 percent, on condition of access to carbon trading and new technologies.
CROATIA - 5 percent.
KAZAKHSTAN - 15 percent.
NEW ZEALAND - 10 to 20 percent "if there is a comprehensive global agreement."
SWITZERLAND - 20 percent, or 30 percent if other developed nations make comparable cuts and poor nations act.
NORWAY - 30 percent, or 40 if there is an ambitious deal.
ICELAND - 30 percent in a joint effort with the EU.
LIECHTENSTEIN - 20 percent, or 30 percent if others act.
MONACO - 30 percent; aims to be carbon neutral by 2050.
DEVELOPING NATIONS' ACTIONS BY 2020 (U.N. climate panel scenarios show that major emerging economies should slow the growth of emissions by 15 to 30 percent below projected levels by 2020).
CHINA - Aims to cut the amount of carbon produced per unit of economic output by 40 to 45 percent from 2005 levels. This "carbon intensity" goal would let emissions keep rising, but more slowly than economic growth.
INDIA - Plans to reduce the emissions intensity of gross domestic product by 20 to 25 percent from 2005 levels.
BRAZIL - Intends to cut emissions by between 36.1 and 38.9 percent below "business as usual" levels with measures such as reducing deforestation, energy efficiency and more hydropower.
SOUTH AFRICA - Says that, with the right international aid, its emissions could peak between 2020-25, plateau for a decade and then decline in absolute terms from about 2035.
INDONESIA - Intends to reduce emissions by 26 percent by 2020 with measures including sustainable peat management, reduced deforestation, and energy efficiency.
MEXICO - Will seek to cut greenhouse gases by up to 30 percent below "business as usual."
SOUTH KOREA - Plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent below "business as usual" projections.
ARMENIA - Increase renewable energy output, modernize power plants, restore forests.
BENIN - Develop public transport in Cotonou, better forest management, methane recovery from waste in big cities.
BHUTAN - Already absorbs more carbon in vegetation than it emits from burning fossil fuels; plans to stay that way.
BOTSWANA - Shift to gas from coal. Nuclear power, renewables, biomass and carbon capture also among options.
CONGO - Improve agriculture, limit vehicles in major cities, better forestry management.
COSTA RICA - A long-term effort to become "carbon neutral" under which any industrial emissions will be offset elsewhere, for instance by planting forests.
ETHIOPIA - More hydropower dams, wind farms, geothermal energy, biofuels and reforestation.
ERITREA - Improve energy conservation, efficiency, reduce deforestation, enhance soil carbon stocks.
GABON - Increase forestry, bolster clean energy
GEORGIA - Try to build a low-carbon economy while ensuring continued growth.
GHANA - Switch from oil to natural gas in electricity generation, build more hydropower dams, raise the share of renewable energy to 10-20 percent of electricity by 2020.
ISRAEL - Strive for a 20 percent cut in emissions below "business as usual" projections. Goals include getting 10 percent of electricity generation from renewable sources.
IVORY COAST - Shift to renewable energies, better forest management and farming, improved pollution monitoring.
JORDAN - Shift to renewable energies, upgrade railways, roads and ports. Goals include modernizing military equipment.
MACEDONIA - Improve energy efficiency, boost renewable energies, harmonize with EU energy laws.
MADAGASCAR - Shift to hydropower for major cities, push for "large scale" reforestation across the island, improve agriculture, waste management and transport.
MALDIVES - Achieve "carbon neutrality" by 2020.
MARSHALL ISLANDS - Cut carbon dioxide emissions by 40 percent below 2009 levels.
MAURITANIA - Raise forest cover to 9 percent by 2050 from 3.2 percent in 2009, boost clean energy.
MOLDOVA - Cut emissions by "no less than 25 percent" from 1990 levels.
MONGOLIA - Examining large-scale solar power in the Gobi desert, wind and hydropower. Improve use of coal.
MOROCCO - Develop renewable energies such as wind, solar power, hydropower. Improve industrial efficiency.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA - At least halve emissions per unit of economic output by 2030; become carbon neutral by 2050.
SIERRA LEONE - Set up a National Secretariat for Climate Change, create 12 protected areas by 2015, protect forests.
SINGAPORE - Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 16 percent below "business as usual" levels if the world agrees a strong, legally binding deal.
SIERRA LEONE - Increase conservation efforts, ensure forest cover of at least 3.4 million hectares by 2015. Develop clean energy including biofuels from sugarcane or rice husks.
TOGO - Raise forested area to 30 percent of the country by 2050 from 7 percent in 2005; improve energy efficiency.
(Compiled by Alister Doyle in Bonn)