| TOYAKO, Japan
TOYAKO, Japan The European Union and green groups piled pressure on the United States on Monday to agree to a target to halve global greenhouse gas emissions by mid-century and back the need for rich countries to set 2020 goals as well.
Climate change is high on the agenda for the G8 nations meeting at a luxury hotel on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido from Monday to Wednesday. But green groups fear the summit will end in failure by not committing to a pledge to slash emissions by 2050.
Leaders from China, India, Brazil, Australia and other big carbon polluters will also meet G8 members during a separate gathering of what is known as the Major Economies Meeting.
An EU source said on Monday Group of Eight countries had made progress on climate issues, including emissions targets.
"So far we have seen progress, difficult progress but progress," said the source, speaking on condition of anonymity.
This year's G8 meeting would be considered a failure by Brussels if there was no agreement to cut emissions by 50 percent by 2050, the EU source said, adding that there was already common ground on other issues.
These included the use of market mechanisms, including emissions trading as "the way to go and I think that is quite useful and it has been signed up by all the G8 members", he said.
Earlier on Monday, European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso said the meeting would be a success if there was agreement on a clear-cut 50 percent reduction by 2050 and agreement on the principle of a mid-term (target).
"If we agree among ourselves (in the G8), then we are in a much better position for discussions with our Chinese partners and others," Barroso said.
China and India, whose rapidly growing economies produce about a quarter of mankind's greenhouse gas emissions, have refused to commit to fixed targets to curb emissions unless rich nations, and particularly the United States, do so.
Developing nations also want more financial aid and transfer of clean energy technology and a commitment from rich nations to a mid-term target to cut emissions. The G8 emits about 40 percent of mankind's greenhouse gas pollution, about half of that alone coming from the United States.
President George W. Bush has refused to back any fixed numerical targets to cut emissions unless developing nations agree to binding commitments to curb their carbon pollution.
Green groups have low expectations of an about-face from the Bush administration at this year's G8 and say the bloc hasn't made progress in fighting climate change over the past year.
At the G8 summit in Germany last year, leaders agreed to "seriously consider" cuts of "at least" 50 percent by 2050.
"It will not be good, it will not be enough if the G8 countries just decide to reduce by 50 percent in 2050. They must state 'at least', and they must say something that urges them to take action before 2050," Kim Carstensen of global environment group WWF told reporters in Hokkaido.
"We should definitely look for wording around a mid-term target. A mid-term target would be in 2020, which should be in a range of 25-40 percent reductions for industrialized countries," said Carstensen, director of WWF's Global Climate Initiative, referring to the U.N. climate panel's goal for rich nations.
Barroso doubted a numerical target for 2020 would be set.
The Major Economies Meeting group last month backed the need for a long-term global goal for reducing emissions and for major developed economies to set their own mid-term goals.
"Just committing to 50 percent by 2050 would be a false answer. If there is no 'at least' in there it means the governments commit themselves to not doing enough," Daniel Mittler of Greenpeace told reporters in Hokkaido.
A top Bush official wouldn't say if a 2050 target would be in the final G8 text.
"We have indicated already that we will give serious consideration to 50 by 50," James Connaughton, chairman of the White House Council on Environmental Quality, told reporters at the G8.
"We have been pushing hard, and we think we've made good progress, so hopefully the declaration will reflect this, on the need for common systems of measurement," he said.
"We need to understand that a tonne reduced in China is the same tonne as a tonne reduced in Japan as a tonne reduced in America, and right now in a number of areas we don't have that confidence," he said.
(Additional reporting by William Schomberg and Tabassum Zakaria in Hokkaido; Editing by Hugh Lawson)