Here are details of sanctions imposed on Syria as the European Union agreed on Monday to freeze the assets of Syria's central bank, adding to the pressure on President Bashar al-Assad and his government.
* EU: - The EU put 13 Syrian officials on its sanctions list on May 17. They were subject to asset freezes and travel bans, part of a package of sanctions which included an arms embargo.
- The president's brother, Maher al-Assad, who commands the Republican Guard and is the second most powerful man in Syria; Ali Mamlouk, head of the General Intelligence Service; and Adulfattah Qudsiyeh, who runs military intelligence, were on the list.
- On May 23, the EU imposed sanctions on Assad himself, along with nine other senior Syrian officials.
- The EU introduced new sanctions on June 24 widening the original list to include the three commanders of Iran's Revolutionary Guard: Major-General Qasem Soleimani, Brigadier Commander Mohammad Ali Jafari of the Revolutionary Guard, and the Guard's deputy commander for intelligence, Hossein Taeb. All three were accused of supporting Syrian repression. Also included were business entities Bena Properties, the Al Mashreq Investment Fund, the Hamsho International Group and the Military Housing Establishment. They were accused of funding Assad's government.
- EU governments agreed on September 2 to ban imports of Syrian oil and extended sanctions to seven new Syrian individuals and entities. The EU ban on European firms making new investments in Syria's oil industry took effect on September 24. EU sanctions allowed imports of Syrian oil until November 15 under contracts signed before September 2.
- The EU imposed new sanctions on September 24 on Syriatel, Syria's main mobile phone operator, and Addounia TV, as well as on three construction and investment firms linked to the Syrian military.
- On December 1, the EU agreed new sanctions on Syria's oil and financial sectors. The companies targeted included Sytrol and General Petroleum Corporation. New sanctions also banned the export of equipment for the Syrian oil and gas industry as well as technical equipment used for surveillance.
- On January 23, 2012, EU foreign ministers again tightened sanctions on Syria, adding 22 people and eight entities to a list of banned people and groups, bringing the total number of Syrian entities targeted by an asset freeze to 38 and the number of individuals subject to an asset freeze and visa ban to 108.
- On February 27 the EU agreed more sanctions including prohibiting trade in gold and other precious metals with Syrian state institutions and a ban on cargo flights from Syria. The Central Bank is targeted as well as other individuals including cabinet ministers. The EU also imposed sanctions on seven Syrian cabinet ministers including the Health Minister for his role in denying aid to protesters. Other ministers on the list for supporting the oppression are the telecoms, transport, education and oil and industry ministers.
* TURKEY: - Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said on November 30 that all relations with Syria's central bank were being suspended and that a cooperation agreement with Syria was being halted, as well as all financial credit dealings. Turkey has also frozen Syrian government assets and will block delivery of all weapons and military equipment to Damascus.
* ARAB LEAGUE: - Arab states agreed on November 27 to impose economic measures, the toughest against a member state.
- All dealings with the Syrian central bank and the state-owned Commercial Bank of Syria were suspended. Financial dealings and trade agreements with Syria were halted.
* U.S.: - The United States imposed sanctions on Syria's intelligence agency and two relatives of Assad on April 29, in Washington's first concrete steps in response to the crackdown.
- The sanctions, which included asset freezes and bans on U.S. business dealings, came on top of broader U.S. measures against Syria which had been in place since 2004. On May 18, Washington added Assad to the sanctions list. Syria's vice president, prime minister, interior and defense ministers, the head of military intelligence, and director of the political security branch were also included.
- On June 29, the Treasury said it was targeting the four major branches of Syria's security forces and said any assets that may have been subject to U.S. jurisdiction would be frozen and that Americans were barred from any dealings with them. The Treasury also included Ismail Ahmadi Moghadam, the chief of Iran's Law Enforcement Forces, and a deputy, Ahmad-Reza Radan, for aiding Syria. It said Radan had travelled to Damascus in April to offer expertise in cracking down on protests.
- The Treasury expanded sanctions against Assad's government on August 10, adding the Commercial Bank of Syria, a Syrian state-owned institution, and its Lebanon-based subsidiary, Syrian Lebanese Commercial Bank, to a blacklist of companies hit with asset freezes. The Treasury also targeted Syriatel under a separate presidential order.
- On August 18, the U.S. implemented new sanctions including a freeze on all Syrian assets in the United States or held under U.S. jurisdiction. The sanctions also barred U.S. citizens from making new investments in or exporting services to Syria as well as banning U.S. imports of Syrian petroleum products. More companies were added to the blacklist including Sytrol and the Syrian Petroleum Company.
- On December 1, the U.S. Treasury blacklisted Muhammad Makhluf, an uncle of Assad, and Aus Asla, described as a general in the military. It also identified the Military Housing Establishment as a government-controlled company that finances the regime and the Real Estate Bank, said to handle borrowing for the government.
* AUSTRALIA: - Australia imposed new travel bans and financial sanctions on Syrian leaders on February 7 to cover an extra 75 people and 27 entities in Syria. Australia previously had travel bans on 34 people and 13 entities.
(Reporting by David Cutler, London Editorial Reference Unit)