* Washington has denied trying to influence polls
* Rights groups see move as part of wider Putin crackdown
* Moscow says its civil society needs no "external guidance"
By Steve Gutterman and Nastassia Astrasheuskaya
MOSCOW, Sept 19 Moscow accused the United States
on Wednesday of using its aid mission in Russia to meddle in
politics and influence elections, a charge likely to push
relations between the former Cold War foes to a new low after
Vladimir Putin's return to the Kremlin.
The Russian Foreign Ministry issued a blunt statement
explaining Moscow's decision, announced by Washington on
Tuesday, to give the U.S. Agency for International Development
(USAID) until Oct. 1 to cease operations in Russia.
Kremlin critics said the move was intended to cut funding to
organisations Putin sees as a threat following his return as
president in May after four years as prime minister, and called
it part of a crackdown on dissent.
"It's about attempts to influence political processes,
including elections of various types, and institutions of civil
society though the distribution of grants," Foreign Ministry
spokesman Alexander Lukashevich said in statement.
He said Moscow had also been worried about USAID's work in
regions including the North Caucasus, where Russia faces an
Islamist insurgency that activists say is stoked by rights
abuses and tough police tactics.
USAID has worked for two decades in Russia since the
collapse of the Soviet Union, spending more than $2.6 billion on
programmes intended to combat disease, protect the environment,
strengthen civil society and modernise the economy.
But persistent tension between Moscow and Washington over
U.S. democracy-building abroad has been aggravated by peaceful
political change in ex-Soviet republics, upheavals in the Arab
world and Putin's long rule.
Putin, a former KGB spy in power since 2000, has repeatedly
warned the West and particularly the United States not to meddle
in Russian politics. He once likened opponents to "jackals"
skulking around embassies and living on foreign handouts.
"Putin feels and has always felt that a free, independent
civil society is his enemy, a foe of imitation democracy," said
Oleg Orlov, chairman of the human rights group Memorial, which
gets a little less than half its funding from USAID.
"Putin takes us as a threat to the system he has built in
the country," he told Reuters.
The United States has criticised Russia's elections and its
record on upholding the rule of law, but has dismissed
accusations that its funding of human rights and pro-democracy
organisations is intended to influence domestic politics.
The move against USAID increases friction in a relationship
that improved after President Barack Obama moved to "reset" ties
in 2009 but is strained by disputes over issues ranging from the
crisis in Syria to U.S. missile defence plans.
It jeopardises funding for Russian groups that rely heavily
on the American aid.
"It is part of the policy of control," said Liliya
Shibanova, executive director of GOLOS, an election monitoring
group that is about 80 percent funded by USAID.
In the eyes of Putin's Kremlin, she said, foreign-funded
NGOs "hinder this policy, so they must be strangled".
GOLOS's allegations of campaign and vote violations deepened
public suspicions of widespread fraud in a parliamentary
election won by Putin's United Russia party in December.
Those suspicions were a major catalyst for protests that
have at times drawn tens of thousands of people.
In an interview, Shibanova said that "controlling elections"
was a priority for the Kremlin, and that the demand for USAID's
closure left it unclear whether GOLOS would be able to monitor
local elections to be held in Russia on Oct. 14.
She said GOLOS had been subjected to "targeted campaign" of
harassment ranging from her detention at a Moscow airport on the
eve of the December vote to tax inspections and poisonously
critical coverage on television.
She described the Kremlin's decision on USAID as part of
"the whole repressive machine that has been aimed against NGOs
since Putin's return" to the presidency.
In July, he signed a law requiring many groups funded from
abroad to register as "foreign agents" and has also pushed
through laws increasing fines for protesters and for defamation.
The State Department said USAID would promote democracy and
civil society in Russia even after its office closed, but it was
not clear whether it could continue to fund Russian groups.
Annual aid to Russian groups from USAID is about $50
million, and more than half of its 2012 budget in Russia is
spent on human rights and democracy work.
Orlov said that far from acting against Russian interests,
Memorial had helped counter Islamist extremism by providing
legal aid to people in the North Caucasus who might otherwise
decide to "take a gun and fight".
Buoyed by oil and gas revenues, Putin has cultivated the
image of a leader who lifted Russia from its knees and has no
need for the foreign aid the nation relied on in the 1990s.
Russia is now a donor country and "rejects the status of a
recipient of development aid", the Foreign Ministry said, adding
that "Russia's civil society has become fully mature and does
not need 'external guidance'."
Memorial's Orlov said Russian NGOs need all the help they
can get to combat the country's woes.
"I feel like I am trying to spoon up an ocean. While we help
one, two or three people, 30 others are being tortured,
kidnapped, killed," he said. "Sometimes I lose heart, but then I
think, yes, we could stop everything, but there would be no
better present to those trying to tear our head off."