(John Kemp is a Reuters market analyst. The views expressed are
By John Kemp
LONDON Feb 21 Personnel shortages at the U.S.
Department of the Interior are causing delays in issuing oil and
gas drilling permits as well as missed targets for important
oversight work, according to a government performance audit.
"Interior continues to face challenges hiring and retaining
key oil and gas staff - particularly petroleum engineers,
inspectors and geologists," the Government Accountability Office
(GAO) warned in a report to Congress released on Wednesday.
The explosion and fire onboard the Deepwater Horizon
drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 underlined the
importance of effective regulation.
But with skilled staff in short supply, oil and gas
companies continue to complain about long delays in obtaining
drilling permits and all the other paperwork needed to comply
with environmental regulations before they can begin drilling on
The problem is most pressing at regional offices such as the
one in North Dakota, where industry has expanded rapidly and
regulators are competing for the same limited pool of talent,
often in remote locations where the cost of living is high.
GAO has identified lower salaries and a slow hiring process
compared with similar positions in industry as the main reason
federal agencies are struggling to hire and retain staff and
then falling behind on drilling permits and inspections.
Congress has authorised the Interior Department to pay
higher salaries, above the normal federal pay scale, to
petroleum engineers, geologists and geophysicists but has made
no additional funding available to pay them.
As a result, the department has made limited use of the
extra flexibility, and important offices remain understaffed,
according to GAO ("Oil and gas: Interior has begun to address
hiring and retention challenges but needs to do more" Feb 19).
The department's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) must
approve and supervise drilling on a total of more than 700
million acres of land, mostly in the western United States, much
of which is rich in oil, gas and other minerals.
Permission is required to drill on the 245 million acres of
federal lands as well as about 450 million acres now in private
ownership, for which the federal government has reserved the
In addition, the department's Bureau of Ocean Energy
Management (BOEM) and Bureau of Safety and Environmental
Enforcement (BSEE) oversee oil and gas drilling on 1.7 billion
acres offshore in the Gulf of Mexico as well as off the east and
west coasts and the shores of Alaska.
According to GAO: "Interior's responsibilities include
administering leases; reviewing and approving oil and gas
companies' plans and applications for permit to drill (APD);
inspecting oil and gas operations, such as drilling rigs and
production platforms, to ensure compliance with safety and
environmental regulations; and determining how much oil and gas
is produced from federal lands and waters to calculate
Much of the work is technical and can be performed only by
highly trained staff including petroleum engineers, geologists
and geophysicists as well as archaeologists, biologists and
environmental protection specialists.
The Interior Department's field offices employ 328
inspectors, 177 petroleum engineers, 122 geologists, 52
geophysicists, as well as 199 natural resources specialists and
22 environmental protection specialists.
But GAO has been warning since 2005 that BLM, BOEM and BSEE,
and their forerunners, do not have sufficient staff to manage
the increasing demand for onshore and offshore drilling permits
while fulfilling their safety and environmental protection
The upsurge in drilling caused by the shale revolution has
made those shortages more severe. In February 2011, GAO put the
Interior Department's management of oil and gas resources on its
"high-risk list" of government programmes that are most in
danger of "waste, fraud, abuse and mismanagement".
Not all specialist staff are proving hard to hire and
retain. The problem is concentrated on the professionals who are
also most in most demand from industry - petroleum engineers,
geologists, geophysicists and inspectors.
In 2012, BLM had an attrition rate of almost 22 percent
among its petroleum engineers, more than double the 9 percent
rate for all federal positions. BSEE's offshore inspectors had
an attrition rate of 10 percent. Attrition rates in other
professions were below average.
"Resignations rather than retirements accounted for nearly
half of BLM's petroleum engineer attrition rate, suggesting that
petroleum engineers sought employment opportunities outside the
bureau," according to GAO.
"Hiring and retention problems appear to be more acute at
offices where industry activity is greatest," it concluded.
BLM managers in North Dakota, which has been at the centre
of the shale boom, complain they have been understaffed for
years and have struggled to hire enough skilled professionals to
cope with all the drilling applications and inspections.
The biggest problem is the wide and growing gap between
salaries at the Interior Department and private firms for
The average salary for a petroleum engineer in the private
sector was around $160,000 per year in 2012, compared with
around $100,000 for a similar position in the federal
government. For geologists, respective pay rates were about
$150,000 and $90,000.
"Top applicants are typically hired by the petroleum
industry, leaving Interior with less-skilled applicants," GAO
The problem is compounded by lengthy delays in hiring. It
takes BOEM/BSEE an average of 197 days to hire a petroleum
engineer and 182 to hire an inspector, compared with a
government-wide target of just 80. BLM is faster, but not by
much, taking 126 days to hire a petroleum engineer and 149 to
hire an inspector.
"Contacting qualified applicants is delayed by weeks or
months, and by the time they contact the applicant, the
applicant has found other work," GAO observed.
Staffing shortages could worsen significantly in the next
few years. The whole federal workforce is aging rapidly. But
more than half of BLM's petroleum engineers and BOEM's
geologists will be eligible to retire by 2017, compared with a
government-wide average of around 25 percent.
Federal salary rates are strictly controlled by the Office
of Personnel Management (OPM). Once a job is graded by an agency
according to criteria such as difficulty, responsibility and
qualifications required, pay is set according to a
government-wide schedule administered by OPM.
Agencies can pay salaries in excess of the standard schedule
only with specific approval from OPM or Congress.
OPM has generally discouraged above-schedule salaries,
because it has been trying to hold down the federal payroll.
In 2012, BLM asked for permission to pay higher rates for
some positions in North Dakota and Montana, but was asked by OPM
to provide more data to justify its request.
All three agencies are currently working on a coordinated
request for special salary rates to be submitted to OPM.
Following the Deepwater Horizon spill, Congress did approve
a special 25 percent pay rise for petroleum engineers,
geologists and geophysicists at BOEM and BSEE working in the
Gulf of Mexico.
However, permission to pay higher salaries is useful only if
the agencies can obtain more funding. So far Congress has not
approved additional appropriations, however, because of the
general move to squeeze the federal budget, not specifically to
starve oil and gas regulation of funds.
Paying higher salaries is not a panacea. Skill shortages are
plaguing both the public and private sectors as soaring oil and
gas production has outstripped the number of experienced
petroleum engineers and geologists.
While the number of graduate students studying related
disciplines at U.S. universities has more than doubled from its
low in 1997, many working oil engineers are nearing retirement
age, and skill shortages could last for another five to 10
But unless federal salaries become competitive, regulatory
agencies will continue to suffer staffing problems, and the
backlog of drilling applications and inspections will act as a
bottleneck to the expansion of oil and gas production.
Given how much the shale revolution is benefiting the U.S.
economy, there is a strong case for Congress to increase the
funding for the Interior Department's oil and gas activities to
enable it to hire and train more staff.
(editing by Jane Baird)