| CAMBRIDGE, Mass., April 4
CAMBRIDGE, Mass., April 4 A 17th century book
owned by Harvard Law School, thought to have been bound in human
skin because of an inscription that referred to a man "flayed
alive," has been shown through scientific testing to have been
bound in sheepskin.
The binding material of the Spanish law book published in
1605-1606 was determined after an analysis of nine samples of
its front and back covers, binding and glue, Karen Beck, a rare
books curator at Harvard Law School Library, said on Friday.
The Harvard conservation scientist who conducted the testing
used a technique for identifying proteins called peptide mass
fingerprinting to differentiate the samples from other parchment
sources such as cattle, deer, goat and human skin, Beck wrote in
a post on the Harvard Law School Library blog. The glue was
found to consist of cattle and pig collagen.
Curators, dermatologists and others had studied the book for
years because of a suggestive inscription on its last page that
"The bynding of this booke is all that remains of my dear
friende Jonas Wright, who was flayed alive by the Wavuma on the
Fourth Day of August, 1632. King Mbesa did give me the book, it
being one of poore Jonas chiefe possessions, together with ample
of his skin to bynd it. Requiescat in pace."
The book arrived at Harvard Law School in 1946, Beck said.
It may have had a different binding at some point in its
history, according to Beck, possibly explaining the mention of
1632 on a book published 1605-06.
Beck questioned why anyone would have written such an
inscription if Jonas Wright was actually the name of a sheep and
said the inscription instead may have been the product of
someone's macabre imagination.
The book - and its sheepskin binding - are being digitized
and will be available through the university's online library
system later this year.
The practice of binding books in human skin, called
anthropodermic bibliopegy, was once somewhat common and has been
done since at least the 16th century, according to a Harvard
library blog post. Criminals' confessions were occasionally
bound in the skin of the convicted or individuals may have asked
to be memorialized for family or lovers in the form of a book
bound in their skin, it said.
Harvard has two other books thought to be bound in human
skin, including a meditation on the soul published by French
writer Arsène Houssaye in the 19th century, and an edition of
Ovid's Metamorphoses published in the 16th century, said Heather
Cole, an assistant curator at the university's Houghton Library.
"There's large pores on the front of it," she said of the
Houssaye volume, adding that books are typically bound in calf
or sheep leather. "It looks different than the normal kinds of
leathers we use to bind books."
Cole said the book contained a note from a doctor who was a
friend of the author that said a book about the human soul
deserves a human covering. The skin was from a female mental
patient who had died of a stroke, she said, though it was
unclear whether she was his patient.
(Editing by Barbara Goldberg and Lisa Shumaker)