MUMBAI/BEIJING Feb 21 Wal-Mart Stores Inc
, famed for its low prices, has stumbled in the one major
market where consumers say price is less of a driver in their
buying decisions: China.
There, consumers say they want food that is safe and
authentic, and, after 17 years, Wal-Mart is changing its
approach, closing some big-box stores that never quite caught on
with locals. Instead, it's focusing on private-label products
and imports, putting its stamp on quality and safety.
"We're closing some stores because we got enamored with
growth," said Raymond Bracy, head of corporate affairs at
Walmart China. "We're not going to do that again. We're focusing
on quality first."
Getting China right is crucial for Wal-Mart's international
ambitions. The world's largest retailer ranks third in China
behind Sun Art Retail Group Ltd and state-backed China
Resources Enterprise Ltd, according to Euromonitor.
Brazil and India are proving challenging, too.
"If you went out and asked members or customers, 'What's
your single biggest worry?' they'll tell you trust and
authenticity," said Greg Foran, who took over as Walmart China
CEO in 2012. "Once you've got their trust, the next question
they ask themselves is, 'How much is it?'"
Walmart International, which contributes less than a third
of net sales, has suffered from aggressive expansion and is a
big concern for new CEO Doug McMillon, who previously led the
The retailer on Thursday forecast lower full-year profit
than analysts had expected for fiscal 2015.
Walmart International net sales in the fourth quarter dipped 0.4
percent to $37.67 billion, and November-January operating income
fell 45.8 percent, hit by store closures in Brazil and China and
a charge related to terminated agreements in India.
"We have initiated actions in Mexico, Brazil and China to
improve our operating performance and this is a priority for
fiscal 2015," David Cheesewright, president and CEO of Walmart
International, said in a statement.
Foran told reporters during a December tour of Sam's Club
stores - where members bulk buy - that Wal-Mart aims to have
private labels make up a fifth of its China sales within the
next decade, up from less than 1 percent now. Private labels
typically price at 10-40 percent below local brands, but profit
margins are higher for the retailer. They make up close to half
of sales in Britain.
Bracy said the retailer is rationalising its supply chain in
China and building its own distribution centres to manage
quality, while also lowering costs. "Our costs have come down so
much on pork that people ask us, 'Gee, is it too low?' They
wonder, 'Is it legitimate? Can we trust it?'" he said.
On an annual basis, Walmart International's revenue growth
last fiscal year was the slowest in four years.
Chinese consumers seek out large foreign brands for
reliability and quality, said James Roy, an associate principal
at Shanghai-based China Market Research. "Yet they're seeing
mixed messages from Wal-Mart because they have tried to sell the
'every day low prices' concept and Chinese consumers equate
'every day low prices' with being cheap and not very safe."
Wal-Mart has previously exited markets such as Germany and
South Korea where its cheap prices and large stores model failed
to work, but it has stuck it out in China, the world's
second-largest economy, for nearly two decades, struggling with
its brand positioning.
Its international business has been under the spotlight
after it was accused in 2012 of bribery in Mexico, its biggest
business outside the United States. It later launched graft
probes in China and Brazil and in India, where the investigation
hit its first-mover advantage in a $500 billion market.
The graft has less of an effect on the business in China,
but food safety scandals - from fatal tainted milk to recycled
'gutter oil' used for cooking - have hurt it. In January,
Wal-Mart recalled its popular "Five Spice" donkey meat after
tests showed traces of fox meat.
Food, especially fresh produce and meat, is an acknowledged
traffic driver for Chinese hypermarkets, making it a bigger part
of the retail equation than elsewhere. "That's the most
fundamental thing about getting food right," said Bracy. "If you
... say, 'I'm not satisfied with the quality,' then you may go
to another store. So we lose not just the food purchase, but
also the jean purchase."
Just to make things tougher, though, Chinese "will walk a
block to save 1 renminbi on a kilo of rice," said Bracy.
Wal-Mart's share of China's hypermarket segment dropped to
10.4 percent last year from 11.3 percent in 2008. It was
overtaken as market leader in 2009 by Sun Art Retail, which is
now tied for first place at 14 percent with CRE, according to
Euromonitor, whose data indicates that hypermarkets make up 15
percent of China's grocery retail market. Wal-Mart's grocery
retail value in China has grown 50 percent since 2008.
Even as it plans to open 110 new stores by 2016, Wal-Mart
has announced the closure of at least 29 stores in China.
"For the first year a lot of my attention, and my team's
attention, has been focused on just getting the foundation
fixed, sorting out what stores we need to exit, being much more
clever about where we're going to open stores," Foran said.
BIG ISN'T ALWAYS BEST
Chinese customers prefer small neighbourhood stores, where
they don't have to travel far and can buy just a few items per
visit. It's a similar picture in Brazil, where market leader
Grupo Pão de Açúcar (GPA) better serves local
customers' preference for smaller convenience stores. GPA also
appealed to Brazilians' desire for special deals with limited
duration, heavily advertised promotions.
The big box store model has been a costly mistake in terms
of real estate losses for Wal-Mart, said Stephen Springham,
senior retail analyst at Planet Retail in London. As more
Chinese opt to shop online, the U.S. firm acquired web retailer
Yihaodian in 2012, which claimed 24 million online users last
China, though, will be a slow turnaround for Wal-Mart, said
Himanshu Pal, director of retail insights at London-based Kantar
Retail. "They are not able to invest as much as they should
because shareholders are not as patient as they used to be,
especially with U.S. and European markets not doing very well."