December 14, 2009 / 5:10 PM / 9 years ago

FACTBOX: Main issues and progress in Copenhagen climate talks

COPENHAGEN (Reuters) - More than 190 countries are meeting in Copenhagen to agree the outlines of a new global deal to combat climate change, hoping to seal a full treaty next year to succeed the Kyoto Protocol.

Following are key issues yet to be agreed, and some areas of possible agreement if draft texts are approved.


* No agreement yet on whether to extend Kyoto and add extra national commitments under a separate pact, or end Kyoto and agree one new treaty which specifies actions by most countries

* Kyoto limits the emissions of nearly 40 industrialized countries from 2008-2012, but excludes the United States, the world’s second biggest carbon emitter

* A new climate deal should include climate action from many more countries, most negotiators agree


* No agreement yet on a long-term goal to avoid dangerous climate change

* Developing nations prefer a goal to limit overall warming to 2 degrees Celsius rather than a target to halve global greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 — which they are concerned may limit their economic growth if rich nations do not take enough of the burden.

* A U.N.-drafted text suggests at least a halving of emissions by 2050. Countries have not voted on that text yet


* No agreement yet on how far individual rich countries should cut their emissions by 2020 versus 1990 levels

* Industrialized nations have proposed bids which so far add up to cuts of about 14-18 percent

* Developing nations including China are insisting on cuts of at least 40 percent

* A U.N.-draft text suggests rich countries collectively cut emissions by at least 25-40 percent by 2020


* No agreement yet on how far poorer countries should commit to targets to curb growth in greenhouse gases

* Developed countries want poorer countries to “stand behind” their targets through some kind of international inspection, which developing nations reject


* No agreement yet on how much rich nations should pay developing nations in the short or medium term to help them fight climate change

* Rich nations have suggested about $10 billion per year from 2010-2012 which China and African nations have rejected as not enough

* Developing nations have suggested figures of at least mid-term $200-$300 billion climate aid annually by 2020, compared with a European Union proposal of $150 billion


* No agreement on whether to include aviation and shipping, and make it mandatory to include farming and forestry in targets

* Kyoto excludes greenhouse gases from aviation and shipping, responsible for at least 5 percent of global emissions

* Under Kyoto it is voluntary for industrialized countries to include in their targets emissions from land use, including deforestation and farming

* Combined, farms and deforestation account for a third of global greenhouse gases


* No agreement yet on how to scale up carbon finance, where rich nations pay for emissions cuts in developing countries through trade in carbon offsets

* No agreement on how to streamline an existing scheme under Kyoto’s clean development mechanism, which deployed $6.5 billion last year in developing nations. The European Union wants the scheme to invest tens of billions annually by 2020

* No agreement on whether to allow emissions cuts from new sectors to qualify for carbon offsets, including nuclear power, carbon capture and storage and conserving forests

* A draft text proposed a larger scheme whereby whole sectors such as power generation could earn carbon credits, instead of individual projects such as wind farms


* Mounting agreement on rewarding tropical countries which slow deforestation under a new deal

* The latest draft text addressed key issues on looking after the interests of indigenous people but activists complain that has been moved out of a legally binding part of the text

* Another issue is whether to allow plantations to earn carbon offsets if they are planted on former virgin forest land

Reporting by Gerard Wynn, Editing by Dominic Evans

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