Factbox: U.N. talks try to define rich, poor climate effort

(Reuters) - Negotiators at U.N. climate talks in Mexico are trying to define the climate actions required of developed and emerging economies, to overcome the main block in sharing the burden of carbon emissions cuts.

Under the U.N.’s existing Kyoto Protocol, only rich countries have to cut their greenhouse gas emissions from 2008 to 2012.

A Copenhagen Accord agreed by most nations last year defined action after 2012, where rich countries would cut their greenhouse gases and developing economies would slow growth in emissions through particular climate actions.

Still stalling progress is the question of how rich and poor countries report their cuts and actions, and whether these should be subject to international review.

Following are three proposals on the table at the November 29-December 10 negotiations in Cancun, on this controversial issue also called Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV).


* Only industrialized countries report their greenhouse gas emissions annually to the United Nations.

* The United Nations does not comment on progress toward emissions targets, although a country which misses its Kyoto targets will be penalized under a successor round

* Developing countries do not have to report their emissions regularly, or their efforts to control these. If they do publish, developed countries should pay for the reporting and measurement


* All countries, rich and poor, which contribute more than 1 percent of global greenhouse gases will report to the United Nations every two to three years

* Other countries will report every four to five years

* A U.N. group, comprising experts drawn from around the world, would assess the reports

* Developed countries report their emissions, progress toward emissions cuts, and their contribution to green funds to help poor countries cut emissions and prepare for a hotter world

* Developing countries report their emissions, and progress to their climate actions to slow growth in emissions


For developed countries:

* Annual reporting of greenhouse gas emissions

* A full national report every four years on funding and technology help for developing countries, plus their own greenhouse gas emission projections

* New rules for international review of reports

For developing countries:

* Full national communication every four years, including emissions levels, projections, and mitigation actions planned and implemented and funding and other help received

* The poorest, least developed countries submit national emissions reports at their own discretion


All countries:

* “We think there should be more reporting; not just on your inventories (emissions levels), but also on your actions,” said Jonathan Pershing, deputy special envoy for climate change

* International review of commitments “could be formalized”

For developed countries:

* Annual reporting of emissions

For developing countries:

* “Our sense is that the bigger you are the more significant your emissions, it might be useful to have more frequent reporting”

* “Perhaps every two years might be acceptable. That’s fine”

Reporting by Gerard Wynn in CANCUN, Mexico, Editing by Cynthia Osterman