Major events in Egypt since Arab Spring uprisings

CAIRO (Reuters) - Egyptians began voting on Monday in an election set to give President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, a former armed forces commander, a second four-year term. Polls will be open for three days.

Sisi first came to power after ousting Islamist president Mohamed Mursi in 2013, two years after the Arab Spring uprisings that toppled several veteran Arab leaders including Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak.

Here is a timeline of events surrounding Egypt’s 2011 uprising and the years that have followed:


Jan - Protests erupt across Egypt against President Hosni Mubarak, demanding accountability and democracy. Security forces kill hundreds of people in clashes that follow, and the military mobilizes amid unrest.

Feb - Mubarak steps down after 18 days of protests and violence, and the military takes control.


Nov 2011 to Jan 2012 - Islamists win parliamentary elections called by Egypt’s Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. The Muslim Brotherhood forms the largest bloc.

June - Egypt’s first free presidential election, in which 13 candidates compete, goes to a run-off between Brotherhood candidate Mohamed Mursi and former prime minister and air force commander Ahmed Shafik.

Mursi wins with nearly 52 percent of the vote.

Nov - Mursi retires top military commanders and appoints General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi as minister of defense and military commander-in-chief.

Dec - Mursi pushes through a new constitution in a controversial referendum that leads to clashes between Islamists and their opponents.


June - Wide protests break out against Mursi’s presidency, demanding his removal and complaining of poverty and instability.

July - The military, led by Sisi, overthrows Mursi, who is arrested alongside other Brotherhood leaders.

Aug - Hundreds of Mursi supporters shot dead by security forces in two Cairo protest camps in what human rights groups call the worst massacre in Egypt’s modern history.


July - Sisi elected president with almost 97 percent of the vote on promises of stability and improving a struggling economy.

Nov - Militants in Sinai pledge loyalty to Islamic State, effectively setting up an Egyptian branch of the violent jihadist group based in Iraq and Syria.


June - A bomb attack blamed on Islamist militants kills Egypt’s chief prosecutor in Cairo. Attacks by militants in the coming years increasingly target civilians, including Christians, as well as security forces.


Nov - Egypt secures a $12 billion loan deal with the International Monetary Fund and devalues its currency, leaving most Egyptians worse off in austerity measures aimed at improving the economy in the long term.


March - Mubarak is freed after six years of detention and cleared of charges including corruption and the killing of protesters in 2011.

Nov - Islamist militants kill more than 300 people at a mosque in the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt’s deadliest such attack.


March - Sisi seeks second term in election where he stands against only one candidate after all serious challengers are forced to halt campaigns or withdraw, citing intimidation.

Reporting by Ahmed Aboulenein, John Davison; editing by David Stamp