August 3, 2011 / 12:08 PM / in 6 years

Factbox: Fallen leaders on trial

(Reuters) - Egypt’s ousted president, Hosni Mubarak, faced trial Wednesday for conspiring to kill protesters.

Here are details of some other fallen leaders who have faced trial in the last 30 years.

* ARGENTINA - Leopoldo Galtieri and other junta leaders were tried for human rights crimes shortly after democracy was restored to the country in 1983. He was cleared of rights charges but jailed for his handling of the Falklands conflict and later pardoned. Galtieri died in January 2003.

* BOLIVIA - Bolivian strong man Luis Garcia Meza was ousted in a counter-coup after 13 months of strong-arm rule. He was jailed in 1995 for 30 years for genocide, torture and murder of political opponents during his 1980-81 regime.

* EAST GERMANY - Erich Honecker fell from power in East Germany after 18 years. He fled to Moscow to escape manslaughter charges linked to deaths of defectors at the Berlin Wall but was extradited back to Germany. The trial collapsed in 1993 due to his terminal illness. Honecker died in exile in Chile in 1994.

* EGYPT - Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak was wheeled into a courtroom cage in a hospital bed on August 3 to face trial for killing protesters. Mubarak was ousted on February 11 after 30 years in power by an 18-day popular revolt which resulted in the deaths of 840 demonstrators. He denied all the charges.

* IRAQ - Former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein was executed by hanging in December 2006 after being convicted of crimes against humanity for the killing of 148 Shi‘ite men and boys after a 1982 assassination attempt.

-- Saddam’s power crumbled when U.S. tanks swept into Baghdad. Fleeing in early April 2003, he was captured in December that year by American soldiers who found him hiding in a hole near his hometown of Tikrit.

* LIBERIA - Charles Taylor, former president of Liberia was one of Africa’s most feared warlords. Taylor, who fled Liberia in 2003, is on trial in The Hague for suspected war crimes committed during Sierra Leone’s civil war -- though not directly for any crimes in Liberia or Ivory Coast. Taylor is the first African ex-ruler to stand trial for war crimes and he has pleaded not guilty to all charges.

* PANAMA - Manuel Noriega, who muscled his way to the top of Panama’s military and took de facto power before he was overthrown in a 1989 U.S. invasion, is in a French prison following his conviction for laundering millions of euros into bank accounts and properties in the 1980s.

-- He had already served 20 years in the United States for drug trafficking, money laundering and racketeering before being extradited to France in 2010, where he was sentenced in absentia in 1999 to seven years in jail. Panama has also requested Noriega’s extradition.

* ROMANIA - Following an anti-Communist uprising in the Romanian city of Timisoara, dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, were executed after a summary trial in 1989.

* TUNISIA: Earlier this month, a Tunisian court sentenced former president Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali in absentia to more than 15 years in prison for illegal possession of drugs and weapons. Ben Ali and his wife Leila Trabelsi had each been given 35 years in prison in June, after being found guilty of theft and illegally possession of jewelry and large sums of cash.

-- Widespread protests in Tunisia forced out Ben Ali on January 14, after 23 years in power, sparking the Arab Spring.

* FORMER YUGOSLAVIA - Slobodan Milosevic was on trial at the U.N. war crimes tribunal in The Hague at the time of his death in March 2006. He had been charged with masterminding ethnic cleansing in the former Yugoslavia. The former Serbian and Yugoslav president dismissed the U.N. war crimes tribunal as a venue for “victor’s justice.”

-- Former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic is on trial at the ICTY on 11 charges of genocide, crimes against humanity and violating the laws and customs of war stemming from the 1992-95 Bosnian war. He has denied them all.

Writing by David Cutler, London Editorial Reference Unit

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