Factbox-Whats and whys of the EU-China investment agreement

BRUSSELS (Reuters) -The European Union and China agreed an investment pact on Wednesday, which Brussels believes will help redress what it sees as imbalanced economic ties.

European Council President Charles Michel looks on during a video conference with European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, French President Emmanuel Macron and Chinese President Xi Jinping, in Brussels, Belgium December 30, 2020. REUTERS/Johanna Geron/Pool

Here are the main points of the agreement and its timing.


The EU and China had sought to conclude a deal by the end of the year and political leaders signed off on it with only a day spare.

The EU’s largest country Germany is a big proponent of the deal with many of its large companies operating in China and had set it as a goal to finish talks during its six month EU presidency, which ends on Dec. 31.

The deal has also been struck on the eve of President-elect Joe Biden taking office, with concerns over China likely to be a feature of EU-U.S. relations. Some observers speculate this might have persuaded Beijing to move.


The EU secures new access for its firms to invest in China in air transport, such as computer reservation systems and ground handling, telecom cloud services, electric cars and land-based activities linked to maritime services.

Joint venture requirements will fall away for the automotive sector, many financial services and for private hospitals in large cities, advertising, real estate and environmental services, such as sewage and waste disposal.

It will also remove project limitations on construction services and commits to openness in most manufacturing sectors and in computer services.

Managers and specialists from EU companies will be able to work in Chinese subsidiaries for up to three years without restrictions.

Companies that could benefit include Daimler, Volkswagen, BMW, Allianz, Siemens and Peugeot.

For its part, China receives some new concessions on investment in the manufacturing and energy sectors, although its stakes in EU renewable energy companies cannot exceed 5%.

However, as the EU has long been generally more open to foreign investment than China, Brussels sees the agreement mainly as redressing imbalances, with its offer to China mostly in the form of promises not to jeopardise existing access.

EU investment in China has reached more than 140 billion euros ($172.1 billion) over 20 years, with 120 billion euros flowing the other way.


China has agreed to several commitments demanded by the EU to ensure a level playing field.

These include ensuring state-owned enterprises do not discriminate against EU investors when they buy or sell goods or services. Forced technology transfer, a condition in a number of joint ventures, will be banned.

China has also pledged to be more transparent on subsidies, including in services.


The agreement includes commitments on climate change, such as adherence to the Paris climate agreement, and on labour rights. China is, for example, to sign up to more International Labour Organization conventions, notably on forced labour.


A political committee is designed to ensure the agreement is honoured, with arbitration panels to rule on disputes, leading to potential sanctions.

A panel of experts will draw up a report, with input from civil society, to ensure ecological and labour commitments are met.


The text of the agreement still needs to be finalised, before months of legal scrubbing and then translations to ensure it is in the 24 official EU languages. Only then will it be ratified, which in Europe requires approval from the 27 EU governments and by the European Parliament.

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Reporting by Philip BlenkinsopEditing by Peter Graff