Energy

Nord Stream 2: Russia's push to boost gas supplies to Germany

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The logo of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline project is seen on a pipe at the Chelyabinsk pipe rolling plant in Chelyabinsk, Russia, February 26, 2020. REUTERS/Maxim Shemetov

Sept 10 (Reuters) - Russian gas supplier Gazprom (GAZP.MM) said on Friday it had fully completed the construction of the Nord Stream 2 natural gas subsea pipeline, which is set to double Russia's gas exporting capacity to Europe via the Baltic Sea.

Here are some significant moments in Nord Stream 2's development:

2011

November: Gazprom and Western partners look into expanding the Nord Stream pipeline system by a further 55 billion cubic metres at an initial estimated cost of 9.5 billion euros ($11.3 billion).

2015

June: Gazprom, Royal Dutch Shell (RDSa.L), E.ON (EONGn.DE), OMV (OMVV.VI), Wintershall (WINT.UL) and Engie (ENGIE.PA) agree to build the pipeline.

2016

March: Eight EU governments object on geopolitical grounds.

2017 April: Financing agreements are signed.

2018

January: Germany grants permits for construction and operation.

2019

January: The U.S. ambassador to Germany says companies involved in NS 2 could face sanctions.

December: Swiss-Dutch company Allseas suspends pipe-laying.

U.S. President Donald Trump signs a defence policy bill including sanctions.

2020

May: Germany's energy regulator declines to grant a waiver of EU gas directives to the operators, while an EU court also throws out a challenge to the rules.

Sept. 3: Pressure mounts on Berlin to reconsider support after the alleged nerve agent attack on Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny.

Sept. 23: The world's largest group of shipping insurers says it will not insure vessels involved in NS 2.

Oct. 1: Denmark gives NS 2 permission to operate in Danish waters.

Dec. 3: The United States unveils a bill targeting companies and individuals helping NS 2.

Dec. 28: NS 2 says it has completed the 2.6 km section in German waters. read more

2021

Jan 20: Trump on his last full day in office imposes sanctions on Russian pipe-laying ship Fortuna. read more

German environmental groups file complaints with maritime regulator BSH, effectively preventing further work in Germany for the time being. read more

Jan. 21: The European parliament passes a resolution calling for a stop to NS 2 completion in response to the arrest of Navalny in Russia. read more

Jan. 24: Fortuna resumes work in Danish waters. read more

April 22: The U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee advances a bill to pressure companies helping to build NS 2. read more

May 19: The U.S. State Department waives sanctions around participants of Nord Stream 2, saying it was in the U.S. national interest.

June 4: President Vladimir Putin says Russia has finished laying the first line of the pipeline to Germany.

June 7: U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken says completion of Nord Stream 2 is a "fait accompli", defending the U.S. decision to waive some sanctions and vowing a response if Moscow tries to use gas as a weapon. read more

June 10: Nord Stream 2 says the project will start preparations to fill the first of two pipelines with natural gas within a few months.

July 22: The United States and Germany announce an agreement on NS 2 under which Berlin also pledged to respond to any attempt by Russia to use energy as a weapon against Ukraine and other Central and Eastern European countries.

July 28: The pipeline operator says NS 2 is 99% complete.

Aug 20: The Biden administration slaps sanctions on a Russian ship and two companies involved in the pipeline.

Putin says there are 15 km (9 miles) left to finish NS 2.

Aug 25: Duesseldorf Higher Regional Court rules that Nord Stream 2 is not exempt from European Union rules that require the owners of pipelines to be different from the suppliers of the gas that flows in them to ensure fair competition. read more

Sept 6: Russian pipelaying vessel the Fortuna welds the final piece of pipe into place. read more

Sept 10: Gazprom says it has completed the construction of the pipeline from Russia to Germany.

Reporting by Tommy Lund and Bartosz Dabrowski in Gdansk; editing by Milla Nissi and David Evans

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