Factbox: Conservation targets proposed for halting nature loss

MONTREAL, Dec 7 (Reuters) - Countries negotiating a global deal to halt nature loss are considering 24 potential conservation targets during this month's U.N. biodiversity summit in Montreal.

But the details of those targets are far from settled, as some prove more divisive than others.

Here is a look at those proposed targets:

TARGET 1 - CONSERVATION PLANNING

This target seeks to make sure wild spaces are managed sustainably, with the goal of ensuring that none of the ecosystems still intact are lost in the future. This target would also recognize the rights of indigenous people and local communities in these areas.

TARGET 2 - RESTORATION

The idea behind this target is to ensure 20%-30% of lands and waterways already degraded get restored.

TARGET 3 - PROTECTED AREAS

Under this central goal known as the "30-by-30" target, countries would agree to protect at least 30% of their land and sea territories by 2030. Currently, only 17% of the world's land area and 8% of the ocean is under some form of protection.

TARGET 4 - EXTINCTION

With more than 1 million species now threatened with extinction, this target seeks to stop that from happening through human causes. This could address efforts like managing wildlife populations or reducing human-animal conflicts, among others.

TARGET 5 - HARVEST, TRADE AND USE OF WILD SPECIES

Here, negotiators want to stop the overexploitation of animals through hunting and fishing. By tackling this, countries could also help prevent zoonotic diseases, or animal pathogens that spill over into the human population, which can occur through the global wildlife trade - as was likely the case with COVID-19.

TARGET 6 - INVASIVE SPECIES

This line would work to reduce the introduction and establishment of invasive species in foreign lands, where they sometimes can devastate native plant or animal populations.

TARGET 7 - POLLUTION

The goal here would be to reduce pollution from all sources, from heavy metals and plastics to light and noise. This target could also seek to slash pesticide use by at least half.

TARGET 8 - CLIMATE CHANGE

Negotiators hope to include a goal for minimizing the impact of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystems - a way of linking the actions and goals of the biodiversity pact to those of the parallel global effort to control climate change.

TARGET 9 - SUSTAINABLE USE

This addresses the sustainable use of wild species and promotes the development of sustainable nature-based products, which could include things like honey or rattan crafts, to help deliver funds and create opportunities for local communities.

TARGET 10 - SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT

Here, negotiators would agree on the need to sustainably manage areas used for extractive industries, including agriculture, aquaculture and forestry.

TARGET 11 - ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

This would look to ways of boosting ecosystem services - or the work nature does to make the world liveable, such as pollinating plants, filtering water, or balancing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Reaching this goal would entail improving the health of environments.

TARGET 12 - URBAN NATURE

One of only four targets where the language has been agreed upon by negotiators, this promotes expanding and linking up urban green and blue spaces, such as city parks, and sees that urban planners consider the impacts on and needs of nature.

TARGET 13 - BENEFIT SHARING

This would see a substantial increase in the fair and equitable benefit sharing from the use of genetic information of plants, animals and other living creatures used in products and processes and traditional knowledge.

TARGET 14 - POLICY

This target proposes including biodiversity and conservation in national policies, regulations, planning, and poverty eradication strategies, as well in environmental impact assessments.

TARGET 15 - CORPORATE DISCLOSURE

With this target, businesses and financial institutions would need to regularly monitor and assess their impacts on nature throughout their operations, supply chains and value chains. They would need to publicly disclose these impacts.

TARGET 16 - SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

Here, negotiators seek to suggest or require national policies, laws or regulations that would encourage consumers to make sustainable choices. Such measures could also reduce harmful impacts on food systems.

TARGET 17 - IMPACTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

This target would strengthen the capacity for environmental risk assessments across countries and address the threats to nature and people posed by biotechnologies.

TARGET 18 - SUBSIDIES

This target involves reducing subsidies for businesses and activities deemed harmful to nature by at least $500 billion per year, focusing on agriculture and fisheries first.

TARGET 19.1 - FINANCIAL RESOURCES

This target would increase the amount of public and private funding for biodiversity. In addition to the elimination of harmful subsidies, it would seek to mobilize $200 billion annually in conservation funding by 2030.

TARGET 19.2 - CAPACITY BUILDING

This target addresses ensuring access to technology and innovation between countries.

TARGET 20 - TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE

This target, also largely settled in the negotiations, seeks to ensure that decision-makers and the public have access to the best available information to guide nature management, including traditional knowledge with free, prior and informed consent.

TARGET 21 - EQUITABLE REPRESENTATION AND INCLUSION

This settled target aims to make sure that conservation strategies represent all genders and indigenous communities.

TARGET 22 - GENDER EQUALITY

Similarly, this agreed target would stipulate that the final biodiversity deal is implemented in a way that ensures women and girls have equal opportunity to contribute.

TARGET 23 - HEALTH

This target, added just this week, would see countries stamp down the emergence of new zoonotic diseases and avoid transmission to humans that could threaten global health.

TARGET 24 - BENEFIT SHARING ON ZOONOTIC DISEASES

Another late addition, this target aims to make sure any research and knowledge about pandemic pathogens is shared fairly and equitably to help all countries respond faster to a potential threat.

Reporting by Gloria Dickie; Editing by Deepa Babington and Lisa Shumaker

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