Methodology: Top 25 Global Innovators – Government

To create our ranking of the world’s Top 25 Global Innovators - Government, Reuters News relied on data compiled by Clarivate Analytics, formerly the Intellectual Property & Science business of Thomson Reuters, and several of its research platforms: InCites, Web of Science, Derwent Innovations Index, Derwent World Patents Index and Patents Citation Index.

The process began by identifying approximately 600 academic and government organizations that published the greatest number of articles in scholarly journals from 2009 to 2014, as indexed in the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science Core Collection database. The list was cross-referenced against the number of patents filed by each organization during the same time period in the Derwent World Patents Index and the Derwent Innovations Index. Patent equivalents, citing patents and citing articles were included up to March 2016. The timeframe allows for the articles and patent activity to receive citations, thereby contributing to that portion of the methodology.

Next, the list was reduced to just those institutions that filed 70 or more world (WIPO) patents. Each candidate was then evaluated using various indicators including how often its patent applications were granted; how many patents were filed with global patent offices and local authorities and how often the institution’s patents were cited by others. Institutions were also evaluated in terms of how often their research papers were cited by patents and the percentage of articles that featured a co-author from industry.

When filing patents, some government agencies act as a parent organization for many subsidiary research institutions: For instance, patents originating from the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are all filed by the United States Department of Health & Human Services. In these cases, the parent organizations were ranked instead of their subsidiaries, even when the parent was not itself primarily dedicated to research. In other cases, new data allowed research institutions that were grouped together on a previous edition of this ranking to be ranked separately. For instance, The U.S. Department of Energy appeared on the list in 2016, but its subsidiary institutions (including Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) appear in 2017.

The following criteria comprise the composite score, which in turn determines the ranking of the organization according to innovative capacity and achievement.

Patent Volume
Source: Derwent World Patents Index, Derwent Innovations Index
The number of basic patents (patent families) filed by the organization. This is an indication of research output that has a potential for commercial value. The number is limited only to those patents that are registered with WIPO.

Patent Success
Source: Derwent World Patents Index, Derwent Innovations Index
The ratio of patent applications to patent grants over the assessed timeframe. This indicates the organization’s success in filing applications that are then accepted.

Global Patents
Source: Derwent World Patents Index, Derwent Innovations Index
The percentage of patents for which coverage was sought with the U.S., European and Japanese patent offices. Filing an international patent is an expensive and laborious process and filing in multiple countries or regions is an indication that the invention is considered to be non-trivial and has commercial value.

Patent Citations
Source: Patents Citation Index
The total number of times a patent has been cited by other patents. As part of the patent inspection process, the patent office examiner will cite significant prior art. The number of times a patent has been cited is an indication that it has an impact on other commercial R&D.

Patent Citation Impact
Source: Patents Citation Index
This is an indication of how much impact a patent has had. Because it is a ratio (or average), it is not dependent on the size of the organization. Note that the indicator Percent of Patents Cited (listed below) is closely related to this indicator, therefore these two indicators are given half the weighting of all others.

Percent of Patents Cited
Source: Patents Citation Index
This indicator is the proportion of patents that have been cited by other patents one or more times. As mentioned, it is closely tied to the Patent Citation Impact indicator.

Patent to Article Citation Impact
Source: Patents Citation Index, Derwent World Patents Index, Web of Science
Similar to Patent Citation Impact, this indicator measures the average number of times a journal article has been cited by patents. This unique indicator demonstrates that basic research (as recorded in scholarly articles) has had influence and impact in the realm of commercial Research & Development (as measured by patents).

Industry Article Citation Impact
Source: Web of Science
Article-to-article citations are an established indicator of influence and research impact. By limiting the citing articles only to those from industry, this indicator reveals the influence and impact that basic research has had on commercial research.

Percent of Industry Collaborative Articles
Source: Web of Science
The percentage of all articles of an organization that contain one or more co-authors from a commercial entity. This indicator shows the percentage of research activity that is conducted in collaboration with industry, suggesting potential future economic impact of the research project jointly undertaken.

Total Web of Science Papers
Source: Web of Science
The total number of journal articles (discovery reports and reviews) published by the organization. This is a size-dependent measure of the research output.

Final Score
The indicators were used to rank each organization and the composite score was achieved by summing up the ranks for each area for each organization. Each indicator was weighted equally with the exception of Patent Citation Impact and Percent of Patents Cited, which received 50 percent weighting each since they are closely related in measuring the same phenomenon. When two institutions had the same composite score, the tie was broken in favor of the organization with the most Patent Citations, since that indicator is closely related to demonstrating the continuing utility of an invention or process.

State of Innovation

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